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Personality, Education

and the Bible

by Earl Rodd

A Biblical examination of diversity and
God's absolutes with the
Personality Assessment System
applied to home education.


This book has been a team effort. The adventure of home education led to a renewed interest in the Personality Assessment System during the past several years. We trust that we have been a service to our friends even as they have ministered to us as we have learned to work with the wonderful diversity which our God has created among us.

I am thankful for those men who are "old hands" at the Personality Assessment System, including John Gittinger, the primary developer, for their patience in working with a student who has been eager to the point of annoyance. My regret is that Dr. William G. Rodd, my uncle from whom I first learned PAS is no longer alive.

Also, my cousin, Randi Cazell (the daughter of Dr. Rodd) and her husband, Gabe Cazell, have been patient and helpful in explaining many practical aspects of PAS. Furthermore, much of the structure of the explanations of PAS primitives in the chapter, "PAS Structure", comes from an outline written by Randi.

My oldest son, Joel, has been a great encouragement as he has learned the PAS and engaged in endless discussions about the contents of this book. He also carefully read the entire manuscript for both content and style. My second son, Joshua, has also carefully read much of the PAS literature so that he could also actively participate in discussions of concerning this book.

My wife, Diane, has been the source of many of the insights expressed throughout the book. God has made her a teacher of teachers, and I thank God for her willingness to help with this project, seek God with me for its direction, and put up with the many discussions around the house. She also performed a significant edit for both content and form.

1.0 Introduction

We all recognize that just as there are individual differences in physical characteristics of people such as height and color, so also there are individual differences in personality. We define personality as a collection of characteristics including the way we perceive, the way we learn, the way we react and other characteristics which are easily seen by us all. We specifically exclude moral choices from our definition in this book. We believe that God has made each person for His purpose. He made us with different bodies and different personalities. However, each person can choose to defy God by choosing to sin rather than conform to His plans for his life. Just as the person in sin has the same body as he would if he were obedient to God, he also has the same personality. Obviously, moral choices make a tremendous difference in behavior. Thus, while personality affects behavior, it does not determine it.

Another aspect of human activity which especially affects education is the factor of motivation. We believe that ultimately, motivation is a spiritual, not a psychological issue! Motivation is very, very important! Differences in motivation more than make up for enormous differences in ability and personality when it comes to success. Testimonies abound of people whose lives are suddenly and dramatically changed by the power of God through Jesus Christ when suddenly people have new motivation because they know that there is a God in Heaven who has a purpose for them and has provided for their life on this earth and for all eternity.

When we are motivated to study, act, or work, this means that our will has been directed towards studying, acting, or working.

With this background, we tread gently into the waters of personality theory and assessment. We enter these waters because we believe that there is a great deal to be gained by doing so. We pray that the reader will gain an understanding of some of the aspects of personality and how to use this information in relationships, educational methods and planning for careers. We believe that there are several errors in regard to how we can deal with differences in personality from one person to another:

  1. By far the most serious error is to use individual differences in personality to justify sin. This is the subject of the crucial chapter, "Diversity and Absolutes". This chapter is must reading even for readers who decide to skip some of the detail in earlier chapters.
  2. We can wrongly attribute differences in personality to moral decisions and thus punish a child (or judge a person) incorrectly.
  3. We can mis-judge pleasant behavior as good moral decisions when the behavior is due to personality traits.
  4. We can err by using a "one size fits all" approach to teaching methods and methods of relationship. Yes, some aspects of life are "one size fits all", such as "Thou shalt not bear false witness." However, the use of a particular type of textbook is not included in the "one size fits all" category!
  5. We can make decisions based upon methods of describing personality which are unrealistically simple. This error is similar to "one size fits all" but adjusts the error to "all people are one of 2 or 3 or 4 kinds". God has created more variety than that and using such descriptions can be confusing and lead to poor decisions.
  6. Because we are all aware of individual differences, we can find ourselves falling for various theories in psychology, many of which are anti-Christ in nature. For example, nearly everything written by Sigmund Freud must be considered anti-Christ. What is more subtle is the effect of his theories on our culture and thus our own thinking. Freud exposes his belief that all religion was merely the "opiate of the people" in a book entitled, The Future of an Illusion.

In our discussions ahead of us, we will describe a particular model of personality which, in our experience, is very helpful. The model is called the Personality Assessment System or PAS. It is not in wide popular use - often valuable things lie hidden for the seeker to find. As we will present in more detail later, there is a testing procedure which can be used to assess where an individual fits within the PAS structure. The testing system is described in appendix 1 (however, we must mention here that it is not a test which can be done by the reader like a magazine article with "10 questions to assess your husband, children etc.") Therefore, it may not be possible to assess yourself, your family, or friends with perfect confidence. However, we don't believe that it is necessary to assess your children or other family members or friends in order to make good use of the information in this book.

We had two possible approaches for this book. One would have been to use what we have learned using the PAS structure and simply present conclusions such as why some educational methods seem to work well with children with certain personality traits. We could have presented these conclusions without ever mentioning PAS. We have chosen a different approach which is to describe the PAS structure. This approach has the advantage of allowing us to better explain the "why" of what we say. The approach has difficulties, especially in regard to the testing issue because not all readers have test results for themselves or family members. (0) One great advantage of our approach is that we can use the descriptive notation of PAS to say a lot with very few words. That is, we can refer to descriptions which take a page of description with only a single word or two.

A great deal of the value of what we present is based upon an increased awareness of the vast differences which exist among people. As an example, in home education, which is where our emphasis lies, we will learn that certain educational methods are most appropriate for children with certain personality profiles. However, it is not necessary to accurately assess each child. Rather, we would encourage the reader to use the information to be more free to try the various methods and to understand that different children, even in the same family, will work and learn best by using different methods. Also, an understanding of the kinds of differences which exist in personality is helpful in dealing with others in a kind and understanding way.

Ephesians 4:1
1. I, therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, entreat you to walk in a manner worthy of the calling with which you have been called,
2. with all humility and gentleness, with patience, showing forbearance to one another in love,
3. being diligent to preserve the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.

The chapters in the book are:

PAS Background.
This chapter discusses the history of the Personality Assessment System and gives a brief overview of it.
PAS Structure.
This chapter shows the basics of PAS. This chapter is an attempt to provide enough detail to make the following chapters on applications understandable without getting into too much depth. We realize that this chapter may be difficult reading for some. If the reader finds that so, just skip to following chapters and come back to this chapter as necessary.
Diversity and Absolutes.
This chapter lays the essential foundation of how we deal with personality in a sound Biblical manner. We believe it is the most important chapter in the book. In fact, if the reader finds the preceding chapter to be difficult, we encourage him to turn to this chapter before proceeding.
General Applications.
This chapter discusses some general applications of PAS in day to day life. All of our discussions of applications, like PAS, come from observing people, not from applying an abstract theory. We use PAS as a shorthand, effective way to describe various relational, educational, family and career aspects of personality.
Educational Applications.
This chapter discusses applications of PAS to education, specifically home education. Some of the material will apply to classroom situations, but our focus is on home education. This chapter begins with an important discussion of the use of psychological testing with education.
Family Interactions.
This chapter discusses applications of PAS to family interactions which is an area crucial to home educators because home educating families must deal with their relational problems in a way which maintains Biblical unity. They cannot ignore, avoid, or run from relational problems by going off to work or school day after day.
Career Applications.
This chapter discusses applications of PAS to career choices. Please note that a PAS profile does not determine what careers are open to a person, but rather this chapter will discuss what personality profiles tend to be found in different careers. Readers may learn here why it is that some people actually like jobs which the reader would find difficult and distasteful. Conversely, the reader may discover why he enjoys a job which others may find difficult and distasteful.
Appendix 1 - Testing.
This appendix is a short discussion on the test which can be used to obtain a personality profile. This book is not a technical dissertation on testing methodologies and issues; therefore, this appendix is only a beginning background.
Appendix 2 - Obtaining PAS Profiles.
This appendix contains instructions for obtaining test scores suitable for PAS profiles and participating in a research project.
Appendix 3 - Bibliography.
This appendix is a bibliography of published material concerning PAS. The reader who is interested in testing issues or more information is encouraged to seek out these sources.

2.0 PAS Background

As noted in the introduction, we will use a method of describing personality called the Personality Assessment System, or, as we will refer to it from this point onward, PAS. The PAS was developed by Dr. John Gittinger starting in the 1940s. PAS is a descriptive personality system which means that it is a way of describing what can be seen in people. As Christians, we have been able to use the PAS because it deals with characteristics that we see (descriptive) as opposed to some psychological methods which are concerned with the inner motivations and evolutionary history of man (Freudian analysis). These methods are often the attempts of humanistic men to replace God and justify sin. Thus, as a descriptive system, the PAS describes what we see just as we have ways to describe physical characteristics such as height, build, color, or strength. The PAS was developed by people observing people. Observation is a scientific method that is a valid form of obtaining knowledge (knowledge received from the 5 senses), but because it is not revelatory knowledge (knowledge contained in the Bible and and explained by the Holy Spirit), we must be careful how we observe and how we interpret what we observe.

John 7:24
24. "Do not judge according to appearance, but judge with righteous judgment."

We believe that the PAS has several unique strengths:

  1. As noted above, it is a descriptive system. As such, it does not predict or condone sin. To give one example, consider that a man of great physical strength can use that strength in Godly work, but he can also sin and use his strength to abuse and kill. Likewise, a person whose personality is very adept socially, always saying the right thing at the right time may use that trait as an evangelist, holding the listeners attention while the absolutes of the Gospel are presented, but he may chose to sin and use that trait to become a con artist and criminal. We believe that personality may effect the way sin is manifest in a person, but personality (the way God made us) does not cause us to sin!
  2. In our experience, the PAS accurately reflects the way in which God makes people different from each other in personality. PAS is not a complete description of a person, just as observing a man's height is not a complete physical description of him, but PAS does cover a significant portion of observable personality traits. As we will see in the next chapter, PAS describes personality in terms of both how we are made, and how we have interacted with our environment (people, relationships, education, expectations). In our experience, this reflects reality.
  3. The PAS contains enough different types of personality to provide the opportunity to reflect the diversity observable in people. It does this by describing several dimensions of personality and then within each dimension, the developmental interaction of that dimension of personality with our environment. Some other methods of describing personality, while somewhat useful in limited contexts, are too simple. For example, a system which divides all people into three types is usually confusing to any one of us because we have some traits from all three types. This is because there are more than three types of personalities within the human race.
  4. While the un-Godly may use PAS in psychological work which is quite un-Christian, PAS itself seems to be a good model of the way God made us and thus useful to us as Christians. This is in opposition to many branches of psychology which seek primarily to define man's spiritual nature in some way so as to omit the Creator.
  5. The PAS is an orderly method of describing personality. With PAS, using the fundamental (called primitive) personality dimensions along with the developmental aspects, we arrive at 1024 different types. This is before considering several other very important variations giving us thousands of possibilities. The beauty of PAS is that even with so many possible types, there is an order which makes it easy to understand and relate to characteristics which we observe.
  6. It is possible to arrive at the personality profile of a person (in PAS terms) by the use of an objective test, seemingly unrelated to personality. We will discuss this later when we talk about the history of PAS and in Appendix A.

2.1 History of PAS

The PAS was developed by Dr. John Gittinger. Many others participated in some aspects of the work, especially the refinement of the use of an objective test. We learned of PAS through a co-worker of Dr. Gittinger's, the late Dr. William G. Rodd, the author's uncle.

The first seeds of what became PAS began when Dr. Gittinger was working among a large population of people undergoing treatment for psychological problems. During that work, Dr. Gittinger began to notice that certain personality traits seemed to consistently correlate with performance on certain parts of a test. (2) Because the particular test was commonly administered to his patients, he had access to a large pool of people for whom he had test scores, case histories and current observations. At the time, there was a common assumption that poor performance on a particular part of the test was due to "stress". However, Dr. Gittinger noticed that all his subjects were under "stress" and yet some seemed to score high and some low on that one part of a test (or subtest). From this beginning seed, Dr. Gittinger observed that other traits also were correlated with performance on other subtests (parts) of the test. A key breakthrough was the observation that it was not the absolute performance on a subtest which was important (e.g. whether a person scored 8 or 12 of a possible 18), but rather the relative score compared to other scores for that person. Thus a 10 on a particular subtest may be a very high score for person A but a low score for person B.

A second major breakthrough was the observation that the various personality traits observed correlating to particular test scores seemed to fall into an order or structure. That is, with the 10 subtests of the test, there were not 10 unrelated personality traits being described, but rather an orderly structure. The structure will be more fully explained in the next chapter - it describes three dimensions of personality each with 3 levels of development through life plus one extra factor. (0) The developmental aspect of PAS is unique among personality models.

Another important feature of PAS is that the test is an objective test (more will be said about this is the next chapter and in appendix 1). Often, personality testing is done with questions whose purpose is so obvious to the person being tested that all that can be determined is what the person wants to be like. While this is useful information, it is only part of the story.

Over the years, the PAS model was refined as many more people were observed for whom test scores were available. Others did extensive work in refining the scoring techniques for the test so that the testing would more often show results which were an accurate reflection of the person being tested. (Remember, the personality of the person is reality, not a test score!).

During the 1950s and 1960s, Dr. Gittinger worked for US government agencies. During some of that time, some aspects of PAS were classified. Because PAS grew up in a government environment rather than an academic environment where publishing is crucial to success, and also because Dr. Gittinger is a people person, not an author, the PAS was not widely published. Most published material in academic journals has been written by others. Dr. Gittinger did write an extensive set of descriptions of the various personality types; however, until recently this was available only as copies of a typed manuscript. These descriptions are very interesting reading; however, they contain many technical terms used in abnormal psychology which can mislead a casual reader. Also, the reader of the descriptions must be aware of the importance of moral decisions on behavior! The descriptions often mention common behavioral outcomes for people with a certain personality profile. These outcomes are observations of what has often been seen and are not certainties for people with the same PAS profile. Moral choices and the power of the Gospel in transforming minds have a powerful affect on lives!

The author learned PAS from Dr. William Rodd, his uncle, who worked with Dr. Gittinger for many years. After retiring from government service, Dr. Rodd began further research along with a private counseling practice using PAS. At the time of his death, Dr. Rodd was working on a substantial study on alcoholism using PAS information. Extensive research was completed but the manuscript was not published before his death.

To see one example of how PAS has been used, we can look at Dr. Rodd's work in VietNam in the late 1960s to early 1970s. One aspect of his work was to identify those Viet Cong prisoners and defectors who could be effective in counter intelligence. He used PAS in this work in several ways:

  1. To adapt methods of handling prisoners and defectors to suit the particular individuals involved. The result of this was a change from harsh treatment (used by the South Vietnamese) to very friendly handling of scared, battle weary men. The objective was to obtain more and better information.
  2. To identify which men (and women) would be loyal in intelligence work.

Today, PAS is used by a small community of instructors (in universities), researchers and private counselors. There are two annual conferences of PAS users and researchers. In addition, there is an published journal called the "PAS Foundation Journal". The Gittinger Institute at Hocking Technical Institute in Nelsonville, Ohio contains an archive of published and other material concerning PAS and its history.

3.0 PAS Structure

This chapter will provide a description of the personality dimensions which make up the PAS model. We encourage the reader to look forward to the important distinctions of the chapter, "Diversity and Absolutes", while reading this chapter. If the reader feels the need to put all of the detail of PAS into Biblical perspective, we encourage you to stop and read "Diversity and Absolutes" ("4.0 Diversity and Absolutes") and then return to this chapter. Furthermore, we remind the reader of the tremendous importance of motivation, which is a spiritual issue, involving a person's control over his own will. Also, please remember that PAS was derived by observing people's personality traits and by being aware of patterns in test results. What follows was not derived as an abstract theory. PAS is derived neither from ancient (pagan) models of man nor from Freudian psychology.

In this chapter, we will first describe the structure of PAS into dimensions and development of the dimensions. We will then describe each dimension and finally discuss interactions among the dimensions. (4)

While reading this chapter, the reader may find it heavy going or too theoretical. If this happens, we encourage the reader to skip to the following chapters on applications and then perhaps return to this chapter to pick up background as needed.

3.1 Dimensions

PAS describes 3 "dimensions" of personality plus one other factor. (5) Each dimension is described in terms of two opposite personality factors.

The following chart lists the three dimensions. The specific terms in the chart will be described later.

The intellectual dimension.
The two opposite personality factors are called internalizer and externalizer.
The procedural dimension.
The two opposite personality factors are called regulated and flexible/sensitive.
The social dimension.
The two opposite personality factors are called role adaptive and role uniform.
Thus the first dimension, called E-I (which we will describe shortly) or the Intellectual Dimension describes people as either an "E" or an "I". PAS instructors are quick to point out that in fact all normal people have some "E" behavior and some "I" behavior; nevertheless, there is a dividing line. The strength of the factor varies along a scale from: [ I+ I I- E- E E+ ] When we use the words "Strong E" or "E+", we mean that the individual has many "E" traits and few "I" traits. Likewise the strong "I" or "I+" has many "I" traits and few "E" traits. An individual who is an "I-" will exhibit more "I" traits and behavior than "E" traits and behavior, but will exhibit far more "E" behavior that the "I+".

3.2 Development

PAS describes development within each of the 3 dimensions in terms of 3 levels of development:

The primitive level is the way an individual starts life. The dimensions are defined in terms of the primitive, for example the E-I noted above. The primitive factor is either inherited (and there is some physiological evidence for this) or developed very early in life.
In theory, the basic level develops by adolescence. In PAS, we say that an individual either "compensates" his primitive factor or is "uncompensated." Compensation means that an individual attempts to become the opposite of his primitive (e.g. a primitive E becoming I). That is, the individual attempts to acquire thinking, perceptual, and social skills opposite of his own inherent tendencies. Compensation comes about because of pressures from parents, peers, self and others. For example, an E child who is always rewarded for showing I behavior will compensate. Compensation is not a conscious process. Generally, compensation comes about by rewards for opposite behavior, not rebuke for the primitive behavior. A person who is compensated at the basic level in a dimension has the advantage of balance, that is, a balance of the skills and weaknesses of both possible factors. A person who is uncompensated is under less internal tension or stress. Once a person develops his basic personality (compensate or uncompensated) in each dimension, it is unlikely to change.
Surface or Contact
The surface or contact level of development is the level seen when we first meet a person for just a moment. Many people are conscious of what they are trying to be at the surface level. The surface level begins to develop during adolescence and is fully developed by the end of teen years. In theory, the surface adjustment can change at some point in life, but observation of many people indicates that it seldom does. The surface development is a further development either towards the primitive factor or towards the opposite. We use the word "modified" or "unmodified" for the surface adjustment rather than the words "compensated" or "uncompensated" used for the basic adjustment.

The three levels of development exist within each of the three dimensions, intellectual, procedural and social.

Developmental pressures help to mold our personalities. Later, we will look at developmental pressures from a Biblical perspective (see"4.3 Absolutes in Christian Principles".)

If we combine the primitive, basic, and surface levels, we find that an individual with a certain primitive in one dimension can develop in 4 possible ways as shown in the following chart for a primitive "I". Note that a similar chart can be drawn for the primitive "E" and for the primitive factors in the procedural and social dimensions. Beneath each description of a developmental level is a shorthand way of writing the name of the description. We will explain more about this later and use it as a shorthand.

Primitive Basic Surface --------- ----- ------- *----Compensated, | modified I (Icc) *---Compensated I----| | Ic *----Compensated, I--| unmodified I (Icu) | | *----Uncompensated, *---Uncompensated I--| modified I (Iuc) Iu | *----Uncompensated, unmodified I (Iuu) PAS Development Example - Internalizer

3.3 Descriptions of Primitives

This section describes the three PAS dimensions in terms of the primitive factors. Recall that PAS defines three dimensions and within each dimension, the first level of development is called the primitive. Primitive factors are believed to be genetic.

As we enter these descriptions, remember that no particular factor is good or bad in a moral sense. God has His plan for each individual! A person in the wrong place (for example, married to the wrong person or in the wrong career or living in a subculture to which he is poorly suited) may have difficulties - however, we believe that the only true solution to this problem is for the Christian to know God's voice and obey His will in their life. Yes, we can make informed decisions based upon information such as what is in this book, but ultimately, only God knows the beginning from the end.

The descriptions of the primitives describe the characteristics of each primitive factor by itself. In individual people, we often see a more complex set of adjustments due to the developmental levels discussed above. These are discussed later (See "3.4 Compensation" and "3.5 Modification") So please, as you read the discussions of primitives, don't immediately assign yourself and everyone you know to a specific primitive factor. Developmental levels complicate the picture greatly.

3.3.1 Intellectual Dimension

In this dimension, the two opposite adjustments are Internalizer and Externalizer. For short, we call this "I" and "E". This is not "introvert" and "extrovert." This dimension deals with whether a person is more attuned to internal (internalizer) or external (externalizer) stimuli. For the I, reality is inward-oriented - his reality consists of thoughts, ideas, and abstractions. The internalizer (or "I") is more responsive to internal cues such as thinking or day dreaming. The "I" responds to what is going on inside himself (internal). The externalizer (or "E") is more responsive to external cues such as what he can see, feel, touch, and hear. The "E" responds to what is going on outside himself (external). Internalizer

The internalizer (or "I") is a person with a vivid internal landscape. He is responsive to inward cues. The "I" creates ideas quickly. An "I" prefers thinking to doing. An "I" child is usually quiet and plays alone comfortably. The "I" is self-sufficient but needs people for support. "I" infants and toddlers are commonly very attached to mother but react badly to other people. Thus, separation anxiety (being separated from the person who takes care of him) is tension for an "I". Separation shows up in "I" children when they cry constantly while a baby-sitter is taking care of them. The "I" child can persist in crying the entire time Mom is gone. For an "I", personal security is more important than relating. This same support dependency is present in older "I" children and adults, although it is often manifested in less obvious ways than with infants. For example, "I" children will still want Mom to just be there. This can confuse parents because the child does not seem to want to talk or relate, but in fact, has a great need for the physical presence of the parent(s). In adults, the same is true. "I" adults often need companionship more for the security of physical presence and care than for relating. The "I" memorizes abstract things well such as lists of words (dates in history, shopping lists), spelling, vocabulary etc. This means that an "I" can memorize foreign language vocabulary, chemical formulas, or Bible verses more readily than an "E". Externalizer

The externalizer (or "E") needs to relate to other people and is oriented towards the external world. The "E" does not need as much "support" from the external world and people as he does response from them. The "E" is responsive to external cues. The "E" often remembers, not in abstractions such as words, but in external reality such as smell, sounds, pictures, feel, or touch. The "E" child needs to relate to people and is quite happy to relate to anyone who will relate back. The "E" baby may cry when the baby sitter comes, because he would like to continue to relate to both Mom and baby-sitter, but he stops crying when Mom goes out the door because he still has someone who will respond to him. The "E" usually feels intellectually inferior because he has observed that many others ("I" individuals) memorize better than he does. An "E" is easily distracted by external stimuli such as noise, clutter, or movement of people. I/E Differences

This section describes the "I" and "E" by contrasting differences.

Learning Style/Problem Solving
Energy depletion/Energizing
Natural Inclination
Interpersonal Activity

These are some primitive "E", "I" traits as they can be observed in individuals. Remember that compensation and modification can alter how these traits are expressed. We see the traits most clearly in strong "I" and "E" individuals and in those who are not compensated.

Among Americans, remembering that Americans are a great melting pot of ethnic groups, about 42% of the people are primitive internalizers and 58% are primitive externalizers with slightly more males (44% to 39%) being externalizers. (6) Such is not the case in all ethnic groups. For example, among oriental peoples (Chinese, Vietnamese for example), the population has a even higher percentage of "I" individuals.

3.3.2 Procedural Dimension

In this dimension, the two opposite adjustments are Regulated/Literal and Flexible/Sensitive. For short, we call this "R" and "F". Whereas the I/E (Intellectual) dimension refers to whether one is more responsive to internal or external stimuli, the procedural dimension refers to overall sensitivity to stimuli. The Regulated/Literal (or "R") person has focused concentration but is overall less sensitive to all forms of cues and stimuli. The "R" is good at procedural tasks and can work in distracting environments because of this insulation. The "R" concentrates on one thing at a time - we say that the "R" cannot see the forest for the trees. If the "R" is allowed to carefully observe the trees, he will then learn that there is a forest. The Flexible/Sensitive (or "F") is more sensitive to all stimuli. Thus he is sensitive and intuitive and creative. The "F" is aware of his own feelings and the feelings of others. Thus the "F" is a natural counselor, whether in his own family situation, in the church, or as a profession. The "F" is very aware of everything around him, but does not focus easily on one small part of a task. Thus, the "F" sees the forest but not the trees. If the "F" is allowed to fully understand the breadth of the forest, he will then be able to learn about trees. R/F Differences

Learning Style
Way of Viewing

Finally, we can tell a story about an "R" and and "F". The "R" wears big, heavy boots which effectively insulate him from feeling the outside world. The "F" is barefoot, sensitive to the slightest touch. The "R" accidentally steps on the "F"'s bare foot. The "F" screams "ouch!" The "R" wonders what all the excitement is about. The barefoot "F" says he is going to show you what he is talking about and kicks the protected, boot-covered foot of the "R". The "F" says, "See how much this hurts!". The "R" is still waiting to be shown the problem. Finally, in frustration, the "F" drops a large rock on the "R"'s booted foot. Now the "R" finally feels something. In total astonishment, he asks the "F", "Why did you do that?"

Among Americans, about 66% of the people are primitive "R" and 34% are primitive "F". Females have a slightly higher proportion of "F" - 36% to 32%. (See "6.0 Educational Applications" for further discussion.)

3.3.3 Social Dimension

In this dimension, the two opposite adjustments are Role Adaptive and Role Uniform. For short, we call this "A" and "U". This dimension was once called "Acceptable and Unacceptable" but those words carry a good versus bad connotation which is not correct. This dimension refers to the social ability to play many roles (thus role adaptive) by picking up social cues telling him which role is appropriate. The Role Adaptive (or "A") adapts his role. He says the right things at the right time and is charming. Others will like the "A" and the "A" will make others feel that he likes them. Others will be immediately comfortable with the "A". This acceptance is a social first impression response in a situation. When a relationship gets to matters of substance (e.g. a discussion of morals and spiritual issues), then the first impressions become less important.

A key feature of an "A" is that he can comfortably adapt to new situations. The "U" is always uneasy in a new situation. Whereas the "A" says the right thing at the right time, the "U" is prone to putting his foot in his mouth. To give an example, when meeting a new person, the "A" will notice that the person is a smart dresser and respond appropriately. The "U" with his one role is perhaps interested in sports. So he will misinterpret a comment about dress to mean something about sports and respond inappropriately.

We say that the "A" is like the person with a wardrobe of different outfits - one for each occasion. The "U" has only 1 or 2 outfits which he wears no matter what the occasion. A/U Differences


To illustrate, consider a sales situation (whether a seasoned business sales person or a child going around the neighborhood selling his crafts):

An "A" will often report that "people don't like me" or that "when I was a child, no one liked me". The "U" will more likely report that "no one shared my interests" or "they picked on me because I was poor." The reader may wonder how an "A" will be rejected. In general, the "A" is well liked and makes good first impressions, but other factors can lead to rejection such as physical appearance, religious or ethnic background, or unrealistic expectations imposed by other people. If the parent of an "A" child has an unrealistic expectation and the child does not meet that expectation, he will say that his parents don't like him. An unrealistic expectation can be seen in teaching a "A" child to read. An "A" child may always respond pleasantly to instruction, whether he really is reading well or not. His parents interpret the child's pleasant response to mean that the child is learning to read very quickly, and thus expect that he will be an excellent student and do everything well. When the child does not meet those expectations, he is rejected and attributes the rejection to "they don't like me" rather than to his performance.

For the "U", rejection occurs for more obvious reasons. The "U" misses social queues and does not respond according to the role expected by the person to whom he is relating. For example, the "U" child may wish to relate to someone about an activity or interest, but his clumsy social skills cause him to appear rude while trying to gain the attention of listeners. The "U" is ignored in such situations and is rejected.

First Impressions
Challenge and Anxiety
What Others Expect
The Actor
An example of the effect of Adaptive/Uniform is seen in actors.
Response to Groups
We must be careful to separate personality and moral behavior here. The "A", who tends to reflect the behavior of the group, may sound like a person with a moral problem with peer pressure. This can happen. However, the "A" with a good Christian foundation may use his "A" social ability to adapt socially, making the group comfortable with him, but drawing the line at moral issues. Because he adapts socially, he can gain acceptance to the point of being a strong Christian witness. The "U" may never gain enough acceptance into the group to be in a position to witness. That is, the "U" will be unadaptable socially, even when the situation calls for it.

The "A" is more open to peer pressure. This is an example of the principle we explain in the chapter, "Diversity and Absolutes", stating that for different people with different personalities, different sins are more tempting. Sin and righteousness are the absolutes. The strength of temptation of a particular sin differs among individuals - some are more tempted by one thing and others by another.

Among Americans, about 67% of the people are primitive "A" and 33% are primitive "U" with slightly more females than males being primitive "A" - 70% to 65%.

3.3.4 Fourth Dimension

John Gittinger defined a fourth factor as a single factor, not a dimension with compensation and modification. This comes from a single subtest of the testing system. The test itself is subject to variations due to training (one with shorthand skills performs high). This fourth factor has been called an "activity level" as well as other names. In recent years, PAS researchers have worked on defining a complete fourth dimension. This comes from the awareness that there is an important factor in addition to the three dimensions. This factor relates to activity level, or being a "go-getter".

John Gittinger described the fourth factor in several ways. One application is the ability of a compensated "E" or "I" (see below) to maintain their compensation. Another application is the tendency to sit and ponder what cannot be changed. The most recent research has again treated the factor as an independent factor called activity level. Those with a high "activity level" maintain their basic level personality in the intellectual dimension better. For example, an "Ec" (compensated E) whose personality profile shows "high activity level," can better maintain his internalized behavior than an "Ec" who has "low activity level."

In our applications of PAS in later chapters, we will not make use of distinctions in the activity level factor.

3.4 Compensation

Before moving into a discussion of development levels, we again remind readers that if they are feeling the need to step back from the detail about personality and consider a Biblical perspective, they should turn to the chapter "Diversity and Absolutes" ("4.0 Diversity and Absolutes") to consider important Biblical distinctions and then return to this chapter.

Having considered a short description of the three primitive dimensions in the PAS model of personality, we will now incorporate the next level of development which PAS calls the basic level. In each dimension, an individual will either compensate his primitive factor (try to become the opposite) or will remain uncompensated (continue to develop along the primitive direction). An individual may compensate in one or two dimensions and not others. All combinations occur. In theory, compensation comes about primarily when a child is rewarded for behavior which is typical of the opposing primitive to his own. Thus a primitive "E" (externalizer) child who is always rewarded for quietly playing by himself and developing intellectual activities will become a compensated "E". Likewise, a primitive "I" (internalizer) child who is always rewarded for responding to people will become a compensated "I".

We represent a compensated factor with the symbol, "c". Thus a compensated "E" is written "Ec". The development of an individual as compensated or uncompensated in each dimension is firm by the end of adolescence. It almost never changes later in life.

Remembering that PAS is a descriptive system, that is it comes from observing people, and not a theoretical system, it should come as no surprise that the effects of compensation are described in terms of each dimension. Thus, we shall describe the various compensated and uncompensated adjustments.

It is very important to remember, that a primitive "E" (or "I" etc.) is still a primitive "E" regardless of later developmental stages! Thus the primitive "E" will always have "E" characteristics. Compensation or modification affect the personality we observe, but do not change the fact that he is a primitive "E". For example, a compensated "E" is not a primitive "I" even though he has learned much "I" behavior.

3.4.1 Primitive Externalizer

The primitive externalizer ("E") can be either compensated ("Ec") or uncompensated ("Eu"). The "Ec" has learned to be intellectual, although still a practical primitive "E". The "Ec" in often very interested in courses to learn how to study or how to develop your mind. He wants to learn to be intellectual in a practical way. The "Ec" is sometimes called the "strong, silent type". The "Ec" and the "Ic" (as we will see later) are the "good student" adjustments.

An important aspect of compensation is that the individual is guarded against his primitive trait. Thus, the "Ec" is guarded against getting too close to someone in a relationship. The "Ec" is very guarded against any lack of intellectual discipline such as daydreaming or the giggles.

A characteristic of the "Ec" is intense interests. This may be seen as the person who studies sports diligently and knows all games, scores, and players. It may be the carpenter who knows every tool and technique of the trade. It may be the student who exhausts the subject that interests him. We can use this intense interest as an example of how sin will be manifest differently according to personality. If the individual is idolatrous, having a hobby, person, artist, or other interest truly as his god, and he is an "Ec", the idolatry will be obvious because of the intensity of the interest. In contrast, we need to be cautious that we do not mistake the intense interest of an "Ec" for idolatry when it is merely the way he approaches whatever work he puts his hand to. Such examples as these are why God places His priority on the condition of our heart, not in a list of outward symptoms.

The "Ec" is an independent person. He has overcome the emotional dependence of the primitive "E". Thus the "Ec" (depending upon the other dimensions of PAS), is often a leader. This can produce conflict. For example, if a parent and a child are both "Ec", when the parent attempts to teach the child, he demands to be in control of the situation and have things done his way. However, the "Ec" child is also independent and will have his own ideas about how to approach the subject at hand with regard to how to do the work (e.g. long answer versus short answer), the style to be used (e.g. oral versus written), or the schedule for completing the work. Parents of "Ec" children need God's discernment to separate rebellion against parents (doing the opposite just to be in rebellion) from "Ec" independence (which the child honestly believes to be the right and best way). Contrast this independence with the discussion of the "Ic" later in this chapter.

The uncompensated "E", or "Eu" has continued to be externalized. The "Eu" has a strong need to relate. The "Eu" finds that his emotions easily swing according to how his relationships are going. As a student, the "Eu" is more interested in relating than in being intellectual. The "Eu" in a school setting always has difficulty with talking when he is supposed to be quiet. Furthermore the "Eu" is easily distracted since for him, the world around him is reality. The "Eu" is prone to swings of excitement and then feeling low. An "Eu" can get very excited about setting out on a project, especially one which has a prospect of gaining him attention, but easily fades when it requires intellectual, non "E" type of work.

An "Eu" and "Ec" can find relating to each other a challenge because the "Eu" wants to relate deeply and the "Ec" is guarding against his primitive tendency to do so. Furthermore, the "Ec" may be annoyed when he sees the strong "E" traits in the "Eu".

We say that the "Eu" has dependency needs - emotional dependency needs. The contentment of the "Eu" depends upon how well his relationships are satisfying his emotional needs. Because of this, the "Eu" cannot work for just anyone (this principle applies to a work situation away from home, a child/student working for a parent/teacher, or relationships in organizations such as churches). Who he works for is very important to him, and the person must provide emotional support. For example, an "Eu" child who is home educated needs emotional support such as the interest of his parents, genuine interpersonal encouragement, and willingness to talk through his own emotions. Contrast this dependence with the discussion of the "Iu" later in this chapter.

3.4.2 Primitive Internalizer

The primitive internalizer ("I") can be either compensated ("Ic") or uncompensated ("Iu"). The "Ic" has learned to be externalized, but in an intellectual, organized way. The "Ic" is usually quite extroverted. In business, an "Ic" will be interested in courses in how to manage people and how to work with people. Thus he is has learned to be practical ("E" trait) but in an intellectual way. The "Ic" is a good student with the balance of "I" and "E" traits. An "Ic" can be a very determined, steady worker. When an "Ic" starts on a course, he is likely to stick with it for a long time and work hard until he achieves his goal. Being an "I", he may need external help in developing that goal, but once started, he will pursue it effectively.

The "Ic" is a very independent person because he has overcome the dependency needs of his primitive "I" (which is called succor dependence - the need to be cared for as opposed to the emotional needs of an "E"). Just as with "Ec" individuals, the independence of the "Ic" can create conflicts when two independent people both try to express their independence.

The uncompensated "I", or "Iu" has continued to be internalized. The "Iu" has not developed a lot of contact with the world around him. The "Iu" child is very dependent upon Mom and needs a lot of guidance. Adult "Iu" individuals do best when given structure and guidance. Where the "Eu" needs someone to relate to, the "Iu" needs someone to take care of him. The "Iu" can be genuinely concerned about who will feed him if Mom (or whoever usually does it) is gone for a time or taken away. In general, the "I" does best with external guidance - this is especially true of the "Iu".

As a student, the "Iu" is within his own internal reality and therefore does not pick up what is being presented to him, especially in a classroom situation. Schools are not made for the "Iu". Notice, we use the order: "schools are not made for the "Iu" rather than "Iu"s are not good at school. We use this order because God made people, not schools. We can compare the "Iu" and "Eu". The "Eu" has trouble with being distracted and thus not learning his lessons. The "Iu" never hears the lesson.

The "Iu" can work well in cold, unstimulating environments due to his continuing vivid internal landscape. (For example, an "Iu" Christian thrown into a solitary cell will survive the confinement well. The "Eu" will find this situation terrifying.) An "Iu" is often very talkative, but his talk is different from the talk of the "Eu". The "Iu" will talk a lot about himself but not pour out his soul seeking to fulfill a need to relate like an "Eu". The "Eu" can't keep a secret at all, because he wants to relate everything he knows to any and everyone. The "Iu" can be difficult to penetrate.

The "Eu" and "Iu" face different moral challenges here. For example, the "Eu" must be challenged by the proverb,

Proverbs 11:13
13. He who goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets, but he who is trustworthy conceals a matter.

On the other hand, the "Iu" must be challenged by the proverb,

Proverbs 27:5
5. Better is open rebuke than love that is concealed.

The "Iu" continues to have strong succor dependency needs. Because of this, the "Iu" can generally work for anyone and succeed. As long as he is working and producing (and his superiors do not prevent him from getting the job done), he is an excellent follower. He both needs external guidance and responds well to it. Thus in home education, the "Iu" needs strong direction from parents concerning schedules, assignments, and work plans. This is in contrast to the "Ic" and "Ec" who are far more independent. The same level of external guidance required for successful education of an "Iu" will produce conflict if applied to an "Ic" or "Ec". As we have mentioned before, parents need God's wisdom to discern personality factors such as this from moral and character factors such as rebellion and laziness.

3.4.3 Primitive Regulated

The primitive Regulated ("R") can be either compensated ("Rc") or uncompensated ("Ru"). The "Rc" has learned to be flexible, sensitive. This is a learned sensitivity.

The compensated "R" or "Rc" is an individual who is patterned after his culture because this is how he has learned to be sensitive. He knows what is expected in the way of compassion and sensitivity. The "Rc" has a strong sense of justice. This is how he defends against his primitive insensitivity. The "Rc" reacts strongly against what he perceives as injustice. He also does not like being told that he has been insensitive. This happens when he simply does not notice (due to primitive "R") subtleties of relationships or nuances of a situation.

The anxiety of the "Rc" is that he will discover that he was unaware of something he should have noticed. For example, the "Rc" will often have an agonizing time making a decision about a major (or minor!) purchase because he cannot stand the thought that he will later discover that he was unaware of some crucial factor about the purchase.

The uncompensated "R", or "Ru" has continued to be regulated/literal/insensitive. The "Ru" is not common in American culture; however, all of us probably know someone who is an "Ru". The "Ru" is insensitive in the sense that he is not aware of others' emotions and feelings. This is distinct from moral selfishness. The difference can be seen in life situations. For example, an "Ru" may not notice that someone in his household needs help with a job. Another person can be sensitive for an "Ru" in the household by asking him for help. Then, if he is of good character, he will help. In a marriage, the "Ru" will experience being told often about the nuances of family life, such as children's behavior, which he has not noticed.

The "Ru" can work in distracting environments and still concentrate on the task at hand. The "Ru" will be very focused on the task at hand.

The "Ru" will continue to be a very literal person - one who does not deal well in metaphors and other subtle forms of communication such as poetry, complicated novels, or allegorical stories.

3.4.4 Primitive Flexible

The primitive Flexible, sensitive ("F") can be either compensated ("Fc") or uncompensated ("Fu"). The "Fc" has learned to be insensitive. In American culture, this is not common, but sufficiently common (10% of Americans) that most of us know someone who is an "Fc". One example of a possible mechanism of compensation occurs in an "F" child when he has to guard his primitive sensitivity. For example, a sensitive "F" boy who grows up in an environment where he has to be emotionally "tough" learns to guard his "F" sensitivity and thus becomes an "Fc". A war torn country or a harsh family environment is such an environment.

A common characteristic of the "Fc" is that he is someone with a biting, sometimes sadistic, tongue. This is different from someone who is crude or crass, with little understanding of the situation. The "Fc" is primitive "F" and sensitive to the true feelings and nuances of the situation. He will show his "F" nature by his ability to make comments which are subtle and right on the mark; however, because he is guarding his true sensitive "F" nature, his insightful comments will be quite cutting.

Another trait of the "Fc" is that the individual will appear to be emotionally insulated, showing little emotion or outward sympathy or reaction. However when no one is watching, he will be a sincere and effective shepherd of people who keeps track of those in need and lends the strong arm to the person in distress at a funeral.

The uncompensated "F", or "Fu" has continued to be flexible,sensitive. The "Fu" is the compassionate, understanding counselor. The "Fu" is a creative person who can deal with subtleties and see new nuances of a situation. For example, The "Fu" sees the subtle message in a poem which lies beyond the literal words on the page. The difficulties faced by an "Fu", especially a strong primitive "F" are in handling procedural tasks and becoming frustrated and confused while trying to work. The "Fu" forms relationships quickly but may appear fickle because he is so perceptive. He quickly sees whether a particular relationship has what is needed to endure. The "Fu" often feels inferior. He is very aware and therefore aware of what he cannot do.

The "Fu" can be used to illustrate an example of how PAS depends first upon observing people and then describing what we see. The "F+u+" will serve as our example. The "F+u+" is a strong primitive "F" who is strongly uncompensated; a very strong "F" with no adjustment towards picking up "R" characteristics. From the theory, we might expect that the "F+u+" would be very emotionally and sensually uncontrolled. However, the picture is complicated because being an extremely aware individual, the "F+u+" is aware of his potential lack of emotional control! He is sensitive to his own sensitivity, aware of his own awareness. Thus he usually demonstrates considerable control, although at the cost of tension, because he knows that if he loses control, he is in trouble. An "F+u+" is extremely perceptive in every way. This individual may be able to watch 5 minutes of a mystery movie and tell others the entire story!

3.4.5 Primitive Role Adaptive

The primitive role adaptive ("A") can be either compensated ("Ac") or uncompensated ("Au"). The "Ac" has learned to become achievement oriented and has placed control over his innate ability to use social skills to obtain what he wants. The "Ac" can be quite negative towards those who seem to obtain what they need by social charm because he is guarding against his own tendency to do so.

The uncompensated "A", or "Au" has continued to be role adaptive. The "Au" has retained his social charm and uses it well. The greatest danger for the "Au" is that he may be failing to learn very much as a child and no one will notice. He can adapt to many kinds of new situations and play a comfortable role. He can make others feel comfortable as well.

3.4.6 Primitive Role Uniform

The primitive role uniform ("U") can be either compensated ("Uc") or uncompensated ("Uu"). The "Uc" has learned to play several social roles well. When a "Uc" is in a situation in which he has learned a social role, he is effectively an "A". However, the "Uc" is still a primitive "U" and in an entirely new situation, may suffer social anxiety and not be able to be as effective as usual. The "Uc" usually maintains some of the achievement orientation of the primitive "U" while gaining the ability to perform in social situations.

The uncompensated "U", or "Uu" has continued to be a role uniform. The "Uu" has not developed social roles and will have difficulty with saying the right thing at the right time, getting jokes (7) (especially about social situations), and with being anxious about new situations.

Like all compensation, compensation in the social dimension is affected strongly by family interactions. However, there seems to be evidence that the social dimension is heavily influenced by family in a particular way. For example in a family with all uncompensated role uniform individuals ("Uu"), there is no one to teach a primitive "U" how to be an "A", so all children will be "Uu". Likewise, in a family with "Au" and "Uc" parents, the children seem to learn social skills.

3.5 Modification

Modification to the surface level of development generally takes place as an individual enters adulthood. Often the traits associated with a particular surface level adjustment are present in adolescent years. For each primitive, there are four possible surface modifications as shown in a chart earlier in this chapter. To recall, they are:

  1. Uncompensated, unmodified.
  2. Uncompensated, modified.
  3. compensated, unmodified.
  4. compensated, modified.

Each possible adjustment has its own characteristics. Remember that the descriptions come from observing people, not from theoretical presumptions. Thus the characteristics of each surface adjustment can be described and explained in terms of the theory of the various dimensions, but this explanation comes after observing people. The value of PAS is the significant discovery that people who test as having similar surface personalities have so much in common. The one thing never in common is moral choices. God created ALL men with the ability to follow Jesus and worship HIM but some fail to do so.

We can give only limited descriptions of each possible surface adjustment (there would be 3(dimensions) x 2(primitives in each dimension) x 4(surface adjustments for each primitive) = 24 different surface adjustments to discuss.) We will mention key points about each adjustment.

3.5.1 Intellectual Dimension

In the intellectual dimension, the surface modification is primarily an indication of intellectualization. The modified (for example, "Euc", "Ecc", "Iuc" or "Icc") individual has developed intellectualization on the surface. The modified individual has good general knowledge of the world around him such as geography, history, famous authors, basic scientific facts.

The "Iuu" has not developed "E" traits. He is a person who does best with external guidance. However, the "Iuu" can work amidst distractions that few others can tolerate, such as performing dangerous tasks. An "Iuu" can be a very talkative person. Also, the "Iuu" will often try to avoid ever being alone because of being aware of losing contact with the external world and being totally internalized.
The Icu is a compensated "I" who is not intellectualized on the surface. He is an "Ic" who will be extroverted and will pursue group activities to keep himself involved with people.
The Iuc has developed a surface intellectualization and balance on the "Iu". The "Iuc" is often one of the most extroverted people there is, able to talk for hours on end, but as an "Iu" inclined to talk about things or himself, with less emphasis on a relationship with the person who is listening. Also, as an "Iu", the Iuc does best with strong external guidance and will adhere to the views held by those he accepts as an authority figure.
The Icc can be very disciplined at pursuing a task once started in a specific direction. The Icc is usually outgoing and talkative. Also, the Icc is usually very organized and is often an "organizer" of others.

This is by far the most common "I" adjustment in American culture.

The Euu has never learned to control his primitive tendency to relate. The Euu is not intellectualized and puts his efforts into relating to people or doing practical things, not intellectual activities. The Euu will often feel intellectually inferior. The Euu is capable of constant relating while remaining bright and effective. His difficulties come when demands are placed upon him for intellectual activity, such as studying for a course. For example, in a church situation, the Euu will find it very difficult to buckle down to the home work requirements of a Bible study course, but will gain much wisdom in a group discussion.
The Ecu is a compensated "E" who is not intellectual on the surface. The Ecu is an "Ec" which means he will have strong interests, but as a surface "E", these interests will lean towards the practical and away from the intellectual. Thus he may be a very accomplished carpenter with an in depth knowledge of techniques and inclined to be perfectionist.
The Euc is an uncompensated, relating "Eu" who has developed a surface intellectualization. The Euc does not have the intellectual discipline of the "Ec". The Ecc will be a very, very steady student who plods on consistently. The Euc will have far more ups and downs, especially in terms of his emotional reaction to his studies. One way of describing an Euc is a "E" who has discovered that he can get the attention and relating he needs by intellectual achievement. A related characteristic of the Euc is a great admiration for achievement, especially intellectual and mental achievement, in others.
The Ecc is an "E" who is determined to control his tendencies to depend upon people and is determined to be intellectually and mentally disciplined. The Ecc is usually a quiet person, a "strong, silent, type". The Ecc will have strong intellectual interests and often be an expert in fields he chooses to pursue, be it sports or nuclear physics.

This is the most common "E" adjustment in American culture. It is also the most tension producing of the "E" adjustments and the most tension producing adjustment in the "E"/"I" dimension.

3.5.2 Procedural Dimension

In the procedural dimension, modification means that the individual is gaining control on the surface. One way to describe surface modification in this dimension is that the individual has become conventional or mature in the sense of conventional expectations such as knowing why we have laws or pay taxes, the correct response to an emergency, or understand why we need to work. Thus a surface "Xxc", or modified, in this dimension is always towards "R" on the surface. This will be explained by example as we look at specific adjustments.

The Ruc is a pure "R" who has not learned any "F" characteristics. The Ruc is insensitive and very focused. The "Ruc" is an uncompensated, unmodified, "R". This is considered "modified" on the surface because it is a more mature, controlled adjustment than "Ruu". This is the most common "R" adjustment in American culture - it is slightly more common among men than women.
This is a common "R" adjustment in American culture. The Rcc has learned to be sensitive, but is a surface "R" which to some extent means the individual knows he is an "R" while working at learning to be sensitive and understanding. The Rcc is usually a very conventional person (making his moral training of utmost importance, for he can be a conventional, loyal Christian apologist or a loyal, conventional gang member) because he learns sensitivity by learning conventional responses.
The Ruu is a surface "F", but this represents an immature adjustment for an insensitive "Ru". The Ruu is insensitive with a surface fickleness and emotionality added. This person is a surface "F", but we call it unmodified because this is an immature adjustment with a lack of surface control.
The Rcu is a compensated "R" whose surface is "unmodified" which means surface "F". Thus the Rcu is an "R" who thinks he is an "F". Often an Rcu is very difficult to convince that he is an "R" although those around him can see it clearly.
The Fuu has never controlled his primitive "F". The Fuu is often very creative, sometimes even bizarre. Very creative writers and artists often come from this group. With some combinations of adjustments in other dimensions, the Fuu adjustment is very productive because there is sufficient control in other dimensions - the "Fuu" can then exploit his creativity for productive purposes. For example, an individual who is "Fuu" and "Icc" will be very organized and emotionally controlled while retaining the creative flair and unconventionality of the Fuu.

This adjustment is relatively rare (approximately 4%, slightly less among men and more among women) in America.

This is a rare adjustment in American culture. The Fcu is a compensated "F" who is unmodified. Thus the Fcu is an individual who is proving he is insensitive, but who has an immature adjustment. This can be a very sadistic, immature adjustment. PAS researchers believe that Adolph Hitler and Saddam Hussien are "Fcu" individuals.
This is a common adjustment in American culture. The Fuc is an uncompensated "F" who has modified on the surface to learn to be organized. The Fuc is often a very organized person because he has to stay organized to maintain control over his "Fu" which will cause him to be very confused and frustrated when he loses his organization. Some math teachers are Fuc - they decided to conquer math (normally an "R" stronghold) and having done so continue to prove their success by teaching it.
This is the more mature of the "Fc" adjustments. The Fcc carefully guards his underlying "F" sensitivity. The Fcc appears very guarded emotionally. Still, his primitive "F" will show through, but he will try to hide it from others. Thus he may secretly care for an invalid friend.

In America, this is the most common "F" adjustment.

3.5.3 Social Dimension

In the social dimension, the surface adjustment is an indicator of how comfortable an individual is with his basic level adjustment (compensated or uncompensated). An individual who is modified ("Xxc") is not comfortable with his basic level adjustment and thus is trying on the surface to become the opposite of what he was at the basic level. For example, an "Ac" is a basic level "U" because he has compensated his primitive "A". A surface "Acc" is uncomfortable (anxious) with that adjustment so on the surface is going back to being an "A".

The Auu has not learned to control his primitive social attractiveness. He is a charming person who is socially adept in nearly all situations and has little anxiety about social situations. His difficulties are living up to first impressions and becoming too dependent upon social charm.

In America, this is the most common surface adjustment in the social dimension.

The Acc has compensated his "A" ability, denying his social abilities, but on the surface level has regulated a balance between the primitive "A" and reaction against it. Thus the Acc has internal conflict and social anxiety.
The Auc has learned to control his social orientation. This control comes at the expense of some social anxiety. This is a common, productive "A" adjustment. The Auc is aware of his adaptability and of the need to control it. His disadvantages lie in his being susceptible to social distractions ("Au") and vulnerable to social anxiety.
The Acu has consistently denied his innate role adaptability. He does this at the expense of tension which can bring social hostility. However, the Acu has learned to develop and utilize his intellectual and procedural skills. The Acu is often suspicious because he is aware of his own primitive adaptability. He knows how social adaptability can be deceptive and is therefore suspicious of how others may be gaining acceptance or by being appealing to themselves or others.
The Uuu is an uncompensated "U" who is not anxious or uncomfortable about his social skills. The Uuu still shows the primitive "U" trait of being uneasy entering into new situations, but he tends towards the attitude of "I am the way I am and if you don't like it, it is your problem." The Uuu is less suspicious than the Acu because he is not guarding against primitive adaptability. The Uuu can often be mistaken for an Auu because of his lack of social anxiety and free and easy patterns of entering situations and relating. His primitive "U" will only show up when the situation exposes his inability to play the correct role.
The Ucc has learned many social roles, being a compensated "U", but is uneasy over his social situation. He has learned that his limited role playing ability (primitive "U") can lead to inappropriate behavior.
The Uuc has not learned social roles, being an uncompensated "U", but is trying on the surface to be an "A". Thus, he is very anxious about social roles. The Uuc can be very anxious about calling strangers on the telephone or even going to a store where he does not know the sales staff. A Uuc may be in awe of people who are always comfortable being assertive because to the Uuc, being the need to be assertive in an unfamiliar situation (e.g. challenging a sales person) is very, very, difficult and tension producing.
The Ucu has learned social roles and is comfortable in them. In familiar situations, the Ucu is effectively an "A". His problem is that in situations where he has not learned roles, he may persevere in one role without being able to shift from an unacceptable role.

3.6 The Complete PAS Symbol System

For those readers who like concise charts, we give the following charts showing the PAS symbolic representation of the major adjustments. PAS also uses a further shorthand, but that is not required for our purposes in this book. Note that any factor can be a '+' which indicates a strong factor. Primitives can also be '-' which indicates a weak or borderline factor. An individual with a '-' factor (e.g. "E-") exhibits both kinds of behaviors with only a slight preference for one or the other. They have the advantage of balanced abilities, skills and aptitudes and the disadvantage of tension and confusion over how to respond.

In our symbol system, note that we tend to put "I" before "E" and put "I" on the left hand side of the chart. Likewise with "R" and "A". This does not imply any form of superiority for the "I", "R", or "A". The convention comes from the mechanics of test scoring.

3.6.1 Intellectual Dimension

In the chart, the surface adjustments are grouped with likes together. Thus, in the chart for I/E, you will see that at the surface level, the Icc (Compensated, Modified, "I") and Iuc (Uncompensated, Modified, "I") are grouped together because both are surface "E".

Likewise, the Icu (Compensated, Unmodified, "I") and Iuu (Uncompensated, Unmodified, "I") are grouped together.

Also, all surface "E"s are on the top half of the chart. The surface "I"s are on the bottom half of the chart.

Primitive | Primitive Internalizers | Externalizers | *---Icc | Euu---* | | | *--Ic-| *-Iuc | Ecu-* |-Eu--* | | | | | | | I-| | | | | | |-E | *-+-Icu | Euc-+-* | | | | | | *--Iu---* | *---Ec--* *---Iuu | Ecc---* Surface "I" - Iuu, Icu, Ecc, Euc Surface "E" - Euu, Ecu, Icc, Iuc Intellectual Dimension

3.6.2 Procedural Dimension

In the procedural dimension, our chart follows the same convention, that is, the surface "F" are on the top half of the chart and surface "R" are on the bottom half of the chart. In the procedural dimension there is an anomaly in the modification of the "R". This anomaly in the orderly PAS structure comes from giving precedence to describing people versus the tidiness of the theory and charts.

The "R"s who are surface "F" are Rcu (Compensated, Unmodified, "R") and Ruu (Uncompensated, Unmodified, "R"). From our discussion of theory, you would expect the Ruu to be a surface "R". However, this surface "F" is called Ruu (unmodified) because it is the most immature of the adjustments. In general, PAS says the Xuu (where X is any primitive) is the least mature in the sense that this adjustment has not learned the balance of both primitives of the dimension.

Primitive | Primitive Regulated | Flexible | *---Rcu | Fuu---* | | | *--Rc-| *-Ruu | Fcu-* |-Fu--* | | | | | | | R-| | | | | | |-F | *-+-Rcc | Fuc-+-* | | | | | | *--Ru---* | *---Fc--* *---Ruc | Fcc---* Surface "R" - Ruc, Rcc, Fuc, Fcc Surface "F" - Fuu, Fcu, Ruu, Rcu Procedural Dimension

3.6.3 Social dimension

In the chart below showing the symbols for the social dimension, the surface "U" adjustments are in the top half of the chart. In this dimension, the meaning of modification is that the individual is uneasy with his social adjustment at the basic (compensation) level, and therefore is trying to be the opposite of what he was at the basic level. Thus the Acc is a surface "A". He compensated his primitive "A" to become an "Ac" which is a basic level "U". But then he is uneasy with this so becomes Acc which is back to "A" on the surface.

Primitive | Primitive Role Adaptive | Role Uniform | *---Acc | Uuu---* | | | *--Ac-| *-Auc | Ucc-* |-Uu--* | | | | | | | A-| | | | | | |-U | *-+-Acu | Uuc-+-* | | | | | | *--Au---* | *---Uc--* *---Auu | Ucu---* Surface "A" - Auu, Acc, Uuc, Ucu Surface "U" - Uuu, Ucc, Auc, Acu Social Dimension

3.7 Interactions Among Dimensions

Note that this is a very limited discussion of interactions among dimensions. First, let us consider how many possible types of surface personality there are in the PAS description.

In each dimension there are 8 possible adjustments at the surface level. With three dimensions, that is 8 x 8 x 8 = 512 possible surface adjustments. This does not count the following other significant factors:

  1. The fourth factor (which can have one of two values).
  2. Strong ('+') factors and weak ('-') factors. These make a noticeable difference.
  3. Overall ability.
  4. Gender

Adding these factors still gives us only personality differences before considering moral choices! Thus, within the PAS model, we have enough variety to describe the variety of people we see around us!

This entire chapter has only scratched the surface of what can be described about personality in PAS terms.

We will discuss some specific examples of interactions between dimensions.

3.7.1 The aware "F"

The "F" is generally more aware than an "R". Thus the "F" is more aware of being an "E", an "I", or an "A" or "U".

3.7.2 Jokes

Some people get jokes better than others. We use this as an example to see how dimensions can interact. An "A" will "get" jokes more readily than a "U" individual because he picks up social cues better. On the other hand, some jokes require actually understanding nuance rather than social cues in which case the "F" is at an advantage over an "R".

3.7.3 Social needs

There is a strong interaction between the intellectual dimension (I/E) and the social dimension (A/U). For example, the primitive "E" who is also primitive "U" suffers from a need to relate and at the same time from rejection because of being a "U". Conversely, the primitive "I" who is also "U" does not have as great a need to relate. The danger for the "I" and "U" individual is that he is left alone to such a great extent that he does not develop contact with the world around him.

The "E" and "A" combination is a socially attractive person who likes relating. This person is very involved socially. His only difficulty is in social distraction.

The "I" and "A" combination can be helpful for the "I" who sometimes needs drawn out. Being an "A", the person is socially attractive and thus drawn out by those around him.

3.7.4 Awareness/Distraction

The most aware person is the "E" and "F" combination. When these two factors are strong (e.g. "E+" and "F+"), the individual is extremely aware. These individuals can see everything going on in a family, a classroom or in a drama. They may be able to always tell you the end of a drama after watching only a few minutes. However, the "E" and "F" combination is the most distractible. Obviously, the characteristics we see depend heavily on compensation and modification.

The least aware person is the "I" and "R" combination. This individual can work amid distractions and remain focused on the task at hand.

3.7.5 The "E" and "U" with school.

The child who is primitive "E" needs to relate and sometimes has difficulty in school because he talks to his neighbors too much. Also, he does not memorize well. As a primitive "U", he is not socially adept or attractive and faces rejection. Thus, he has a combination of a need for relating (and acceptance) and the inability to gain acceptance. The "E" and "U" will be sensitive to teasing. He may turn to achievement to gain attention, or he may become a show-off or trouble maker to gain attention. Good family support helps him to get attention in a morally acceptable manner.

3.8 A Simple Example

As an illustration of the dimensions, we will discuss one rather trivial application, but one which illustrates some of the potential for application. We will look at the American football quarterback. The quarterback is most likely to be a primitive IFA. Let's see why.

As an "I", the quarterback is capable of holding a picture of the play in his mind. He can concentrate on his internalized plan which carefully lays out how much time he has to find a receiver before being sacked by the oncoming rushers. An "E" in this situation will have his attention totally focused on the incoming rushers who are external reality!

As an "F", the quarterback can see the whole field and be sensitive to that one receiver who happens to pop free. He can also be on the watch for the line backer who has broken through from the side at the same time. The "R" will be focused on one receiver - if he is not open, the "R" will not have any idea if others are free. Also, the "R" cannot simultaneously keep track of his receivers and the oncoming rushers in order to evade them.

In grade school and high school, the "A" is more socially attractive and therefore more likely to be selected for quarterback, the socially desired position. This early start gives him the opportunity to develop his skills unlike the "U" who will be relegated to other positions.

3.9 Individual differences

Generally when an individual is tested and learns his profile, he will quickly relate to the description given. Much of this is not new information to most people. The thing which is new information is an understanding of how he fits in compared to the general mix of people. Thus the person who has always recognized that he lacks social adaptability, ("U") may be surprised to learn that it really true that some people are far more socially adaptable and that he is not just being shy or unperceptive. Most people find it very helpful to realize just how wide a range there is among people with regard to the personality dimensions we have been discussing. This helps people to accept the way God has created them, and helps people to deal with other people the way God made them - not expecting them to be "just like me" (see the discussion in the chapter "4.0 Diversity and Absolutes").

Many people suffer from spiritual bonds which come from ideas about what they "can't" do and fears about their own capabilities. Yes, some individuals are more inclined towards certain abilities. However, there are many surprises! God has made each one for His purposes. We are cautious to never use PAS to limit what a person can do.

II Corinthians 10:12
12. For we are not bold to class or compare ourselves with some of those who commend themselves; but when they measure themselves by themselves, and compare themselves with themselves, they are without understanding.
13. But we will not boast beyond {our} measure, but within the measure of the sphere which God apportioned to us as a measure, to reach even as far as you.

4.0 Diversity and Absolutes

4.1 Diversity

I Corinthians 12:12
12. For even as the body is one and {yet} has many members, and all the members of the body, though they are many, are one body, so also is Christ.
13. For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.
14. For the body is not one member, but many.
15. If the foot should say, "Because I am not a hand, I am not {a part} of the body," it is not for this reason any the less {a part} of the body.
16. And if the ear should say, "Because I am not an eye, I am not {a part} of the body," it is not for this reason any the less {a part} of the body.
17. If the whole body were an eye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where would the sense of smell be?
18. But now God has placed the members, each one of them, in the body, just as He desired.
19. And if they were all one member, where would the body be?
20. But now there are many members, but one body.
21. And the eye cannot say to the hand, "I have no need of you"; or again the head to the feet, "I have no need of you."
22. On the contrary, it is much truer that the members of the body which seem to be weaker are necessary;
23. and those {members} of the body, which we deem less honorable, on these we bestow more abundant honor, and our unseemly {members come to} have more abundant seemliness,
24. whereas our seemly {members} have no need {of it.} But God has {so} composed the body, giving more abundant honor to that {member} which lacked,
25. that there should be no division in the body, but {that} the members should have the same care for one another.
26. And if one member suffers, all the members suffer with it; if {one} member is honored, all the members rejoice with it.
27. Now you are Christ's body, and individually members of it.
28. And God has appointed in the church, first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, administrations, {various} kinds of tongues.
29. All are not apostles, are they? All are not prophets, are they? All are not teachers, are they? All are not {workers of} miracles, are they?
30. All do not have gifts of healings, do they? All do not speak with tongues, do they? All do not interpret, do they?

Here we see a strong expression of diversity among people - God created diversity. Note especially,

I Corinthians 12:21
21. And the eye cannot say to the hand, "I have no need of you"; or again the head to the feet, "I have no need of you."

This tells us to be cautious of becoming proud and oblivious of the strengths of others and our need for what they contribute.

Romans continues with this theme,

Romans 12:4
4. For just as we have many members in one body and all the members do not have the same function,
5. so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another.

The Bible tells us what our attitude is to be towards diversity,

Romans 12:3
3. For through the grace given to me I say to every man among you not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think; but to think so as to have sound judgment, as God has allotted to each a measure of faith.

James 2:9
7. But if you show partiality, you are committing sin {and} are convicted by the law as transgressors.

Thus, we are to be without partiality. The theme of partiality is a significant theme in the Bible. We can err by creating an absolute where God has created diversity by being partial towards certain kinds of people.

A simple Biblical example of diversity is seen in the story in Luke,

Luke 10:38
38. Now as they were traveling along, He entered a certain village; and a woman named Martha welcomed Him into her home.
39. And she had a sister called Mary, who moreover was listening to the Lord's word, seated at His feet.
40. But Martha was distracted with all her preparations; and she came up {to Him,} and said, "Lord, do You not care that my sister has left me to do all the serving alone? Then tell her to help me."
41. But the Lord answered and said to her, "Martha, Martha, you are worried and bothered about so many things;
42. but {only} a few things are necessary, really {only} one, for Mary has chosen the good part, which shall not be taken away from her. "

When Martha tried to make an absolute of her own personality direction, she placed a selfish demand upon Mary. Jesus rebuked her for this. Martha attributed Mary's behavior to an intentional decision to be "un-helpful" when in truth Mary was simply being Mary. This is so common in our lives!

4.2 Sin

The gravest danger in dealing with diversity is to justify sin because of personality. Personality will influence how sin may manifest; however, in God's sight sin is sin, as demonstrated in James,

James 2:10
10. For whoever keeps the whole law and yet stumbles in one {point,} he has become guilty of all.
11. For He who said, "\Do not commit adultery,\" also said, "\Do not commit murder.\" Now if you do not commit adultery, but do commit murder, you have become a transgressor of the law.

Romans 3:21
21. But now apart from the Law {the} righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets,
22. even {the} righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction;
23. for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

We justify sin when we say that a person (or ourselves) do something because of our personality. This is a very common outcome of much counseling. This corruption relies upon Freudian analysis to find who is to blame for a person's difficulty. Once blame is established, the sin of the person being counseled is acceptable. When counseling has this influence, sin is justified. Such Freudian influence can be very subtle because it replaces repentance with the placement of blame on another person. The only guard against this influence is knowledge and understanding of God's Word.

4.3 Absolutes in Christian Principles

Personality is a combination of what we are born with plus the results of various development pressures upon us by others and our own internal pressures (later parts of this book will discuss this - see "3.2 Development", "3.4 Compensation", and "" refid=modif.). We can make an analogy to physical growth. We are all born with certain physical characteristics. Some of these are affected by pressures or environmental factors. For example, a person's strength and the size of his bones is affected by the amount and kind of physical work he does while growing up. Diet radically affects overall size. A child's combination of genetics plus diet (plus whatever else may affect it) causes him to grow to a certain physical size - height and build. No matter how much training he goes through later in life, he will not be able to change this size. He can gain weight, he can strengthen muscles, he can even strengthen bones, but some things are fixed by the end of the growing years.

As we will see later, we believe that some aspects of personality work the same way. Our personality is a combination of what we start with (genetics perhaps) plus the results of various developmental pressures and environmental factors plus our responses to them. With the personality we have as adults, we can make many changes and grow in wisdom and experience just as in the physical we can train to strengthen muscles and eat correctly. But just as training cannot change our height, so counseling cannot essentially (0) change our personality. Instruction and training can teach us how to be wise with the personality God has given us.

As we have pointed out earlier in this chapter, moral factors are vitally important! Even though we cannot change how God has made us (physically or personality), we can make wise choices. Jesus taught us,

Matthew 6:27
27. "And which of you by being anxious can add a {single} cubit to his life's span?

Furthermore, many aspects of the developmental process and interaction with our environment as we grow up cannot be changed. We cannot go back and change them. Nor can we change the way they have helped to mold our personality. However, we can apply sound Christian principles to our developmental years. If we have been wronged or hurt, we can (and are commanded to) forgive. We deceive ourselves to think that we can go back and dredge up every hurt and pain (psychoanalyze) and some how change the past and its effect in molding us. This is as futile as mentally imagining that we had a different diet growing up and make ourselves 3 inches taller as an adult.

Our analogy to the physical is simple. We can't change the fact of our height even though we know that factors (genetic and otherwise) in our upbringing have affected it. We can work with the height we are and be wise in what we do with our bodies. With personality, we cannot change how God has made us nor aspects of the effects of developmental pressures. We can make wise use of the way God has made us by the application of absolute Christian principles of forgiveness, spiritual warfare, and righteousness in our relationships.

Where there are spiritual difficulties (fears, hurts), they must be attacked straightforwardly with spiritual weapons (forgiveness, repentance, prayer, the Word of God) and not by trying to change the way God has made us or deny the path He has taken us on thus far in our lives. We need to be delivered from fears we picked up in early life. We may need to forgive those who made errors in how they treated us. We may need to repent of poor moral choices, but we cannot change the fact that those things happened and molded us (helped or hindered). The 12 disciples of Jesus were radically different men after their years of encounter with Jesus and the Holy Spirit - freed from spiritual bonds and empowered with the power of the Holy Spirit. Yet, they were still the same men. A person today may have a fear of heights (or elevators, or cars) which is the result of a spiritual bondage. As a new creature in Christ, he can be free of this spiritual bond, but he is still the same person with the same height and same personality.

Also, please remember that a person using his personality traits for evil (e.g. loyal gang member) will look radically different when he repents and turns his life and body over to Jesus. He will still be a loyal person, but now his loyalty will be used for God's purposes!

5.0 General Applications

In this chapter, we will make some general applications of PAS. Our purpose is to use examples to amplify the theoretical basis laid in the prior chapter. This will pave the way for our discussions more directly related to home education.

5.1 Vietnam

Our first application comes from work which Dr. William Rodd (Earl's late uncle) did in Vietnam during the late 1960's and into the 1970's. He worked among Viet Cong defectors and captured soldiers. There were two specific applications of PAS to that work which I know of.

  1. The typical approach to interrogating prisoners was to try to punish them by keeping them in solitary confinement until they would talk and give information. (The South Vietnamese army resorted to more brutal methods). However, most Vietnamese are "I"s. Therefore, for a prisoner who was scared and not sure about things and who is an "I", putting him away where he could be quiet and not have to relate to anyone actually gave him comfort and quiet. Therefore, a technique was used to constantly talk to the prisoners. The interrogator would talk about anything - the weather, their family, the food - just talk, talk, talk from waking until bed time.

    Remember, that to an "I", relating is energy depleting (exhausting). This approach brought prisoners to a place of saying "I'll tell you anything, just stop talking to me!". (9)

  2. The Americans were especially looking for former Viet Cong who would make helpful intelligence agents. What was needed were men and women who could be depended upon to maintain their allegiance. To this end, the desired PAS profile was an "Ic", not an "Iu". The "Iu" responds well to external direction, but is too easily controlled. The "Ic", especially Icc, once he sets out on a path, is very determined and not easily moved. So once these people were convinced that it was right to help the Americans, they proved effective intelligence gatherers. Furthermore, it was preferred to use individuals who were not "Au" because the "Au" is very socially dependent and may easily turn under pressure in order to play the proper social role.

We will conclude this section by saying that to our knowledge, this American operation was uniquely successful. The sad end to the story is that when South Vietnam fell to the North Vietnamese communists in 1975, the American hierarchy spent effort saving corrupt South Vietnamese government officials while abandoning many of the fine friends gained in this operation to a brutal fate at the hands of the North Vietnamese.

5.2 Evangelist

This is an application which is a theory of the author. It does not come from other PAS researchers nor is it backed by extensive research. As we have considered the many different ways God has made people with regard to personality, we have pondered why God has made people the way He has.

In particular, we have pondered the socially attractive "A" (Role Adaptive) with his strengths in social situations and difficulties with living up to expectations. This discussion applies particularly to the "Au" (uncompensated A) and strong "A". One observation we have made is that Christians who are effective evangelists seem to often be "A" individuals! As we have meditated upon this, it makes sense. Let's look at door to door evangelism as an example. The "U" may take all the classes in how to witness and present his faith. But when he knocks on the door of a stranger, he immediately plays an inappropriate social role and makes a poor impression. The conversation is ended and he is off to the next house without ever getting to use all the wonderful things he learned in class (probably taught by an "A" who is very successful at this activity). Contrast this to the "A". When the "A" knocks on the door, he makes a good first impression, saying just the right things to break the ice. The person will like him and be attracted. Thus the "A" has a nice conversation and moves the talk to a presentation of the Gospel. Now the subject of the evangelism may react violently to the challenge of the Gospel on his life, but at least with the "A" knocking on the door, we get that far!

As we read all of the epistles recently, we convinced ourselves that Paul was perhaps an "A",

I Corinthians 9:22
22. To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak; I have become all things to all men, that I may by all means save some.

Paul also instructed us,

Colossians 4:6
6. Let your speech always be with grace, seasoned, {as it were,} with salt, so that you may know how you should respond to each person.

At this point, we must go back to our foundational teaching on diversity and absolutes. The verses cited above can be read as statements of an "A" who understands how to avoid causing stumbling blocks to the Gospel by social awkwardness. The verses can also be more clearly seen as statements of absolutes because in I Corinthians 9:22, Paul first deals with a moral factor (his choice to become weak in order to win the weak), not a social factor. He seems to be saying that he actually became weak by yielding to Christ - not that he appeared as weak. Still, he understood that "saving some" was more important than either his personality or his own desires. In Colossians 4:6, Paul again makes a statement which can be read as the statement of an "A", but can be more clearly seen as absolutes in the sense that knowing "how to respond to each person" is a matter of having the Words of God through the Holy Spirit. God may use the personality skills of the "A" as an evangelist, but in the end, the evangelist who has yielded his own desires and words to the words of the Holy Spirit will be effective.

Finally, returning to Paul, he was certainly a popular man in Jewish circles when he was chasing Christians down - before himself being confronted by Jesus Himself and yielding his life to the purposes of God. Another interesting aspect of his ministry is seen in the book of Acts. When Paul was in Athens, he tried to speak to them on their terms, going to the Areopagus to do so,

Acts 17:16
16. Now while Paul was waiting for them at Athens, his spirit was being provoked within him as he was beholding the city full of idols.
17. So he was reasoning in the synagogue with the Jews and the God-fearing {Gentiles,} and in the market place every day with those who happened to be present.
18. And also some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers were conversing with him. And some were saying, "What would this idle babbler wish to say?" Others, "He seems to be a proclaimer of strange deities,"-- because he was preaching Jesus and the resurrection.
19. And they took him and brought him to the Areopagus, saying, "May we know what this new teaching is which you are proclaiming?
20. "For you are bringing some strange things to our ears; we want to know therefore what these things mean."
21. (Now all the Athenians and the strangers visiting there used to spend their time in nothing other than telling or hearing something new.)
22. And Paul stood in the midst of the Areopagus and said, "Men of Athens, I observe that you are very religious in all respects.
23. "For while I was passing through and examining the objects of your worship, I also found an altar with this inscription, 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I proclaim to you.

Having started in this manner, he went on proclaim the truth,

Acts 17:24
24. "The God who made the world and all things in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands;
25. neither is He served by human hands, as though He needed anything, since He Himself gives to all life and breath and all things;
26. and He made from one, every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined {their} appointed times, and the boundaries of their habitation,
27. that they should seek God, if perhaps they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us;
28. for in Him we live and move and exist, as even some of your own poets have said, 'For we also are His offspring.'
29. "Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold or silver or stone, an image formed by the art and thought of man.
30. "Therefore having overlooked the times of ignorance, God is now declaring to men that all everywhere should repent,
31. because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all men by raising Him from the dead. "

Still, what is most interesting is that Paul seemed to have little effect in Athens. At Corinth, where his approach was,

I Corinthians 2:4
4. And my message and my preaching were not in persuasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power,

he seemed far more effective. Does this say that Paul's being an "A" (if in fact he was - our speculation subject to correction!) was not part of God's plan for him as an apostle and evangelist? No - rather we say that the above lessons demonstrate that while God may have made the "A" to be an evangelist, being an "A" is not sufficient to be an evangelist without the power of God! A reliance upon intellectual reasoning cannot replace the power of the Holy Spirit.

Furthermore, none of this discussion is meant to say that a "U" cannot be an effective witness to his faith, but he will do so by long term relationships which get past social situations. The evangelism situation in which the evangelist must work with strangers seems to be just the situation for which God has made the strong "A".

5.3 Men and Women and the Bible

There is common teaching in the Body of Christ in America which we challenge on Biblical grounds. We can further explain our objection in PAS terms. Teaching on the roles of men and women (especially husband and wife) often paints stereotypes of men and women with the man as an emotionally insulated, insensitive person who is an organized, procedural money manager. Women are painted as sensitive, intuitive people who are not very good with numbers, but whose sensitivity allows them to be excellent counselors in the family. We believe that this line of teaching, while it starts with good intentions, is based more upon an American romantic ideal than upon Scripture or reality. In PAS terms, this picture paints men as "R"s and women as sensitive "F"s.

As we read Proverbs 31, we may see an "R" woman. We certainly do not see the 1950's television housewife. Fiery, volatile Elijah seems like an "F". Martha seems like an "R".

In America, about 68% of all men are "R" and 32% are "F". Among women, 64% are "R" and 36% "F". Thus, there is not a significant difference. PAS research among Chinese suggests that among Chinese, most men and women are "R"s. In other people groups, "F" may dominate. Therefore, romantic teaching which places all men as emotionally insulated, procedural "R"s puts all the "F" men under condemnation. Likewise, the "R" women listening to this teaching feel condemned because they don't measure up. Biblical teaching on spiritual authority in the home does not say who should manage the checkbook or do the plumbing. It does challenge a man to a Christ-like love for his wife (loving her as Christ loves the church and giving himself up for her) and, it challenges a woman to Godly living in Christ-like subjection to and respect for her husband.

We offer the following evidence that stereotyping men as "R" and women as "F" is a cultural pressure, not an absolute truth. The cultural pressure causes more men than women to either compensate a primitive "F" (to "Fc") or remain as uncompensated "R" ("Ru"). (0) This demonstrates the cultural pressure for men to be "R" and women to be "F".

5.4 The "Ru", "Fc" and the Church

The uncompensated "R" and the compensated "F" are both "R" at the basic level of development. That is, after compensation, both are "R". In the WAIS standardization sample in the USA, more people are basic "R" than are basic "F".

A trait of the basic "F" (meaning either "Rc" or "Fu") is the ability to look at relationships between things, to examine issues and concepts, think through how they relate, and comment on relationships. The basic "R" (meaning either "Ru" or "Fc") is more literal minded and more likely to see issues and concepts in simpler terms without thinking through relationships between issues and concepts.

In our experience, many popular techniques used in Christian ministry are "F" techniques such as teaching by allegory, teaching with metaphors, and using type and symbols in the Bible to instruct on Christian concepts. Such are valid teaching techniques. However, we open the question of whether most Christian teaching is done by people who are basic "F" and may fail to reach the large population of people who are basic "R". Surely, God has provided salvation to all men through Jesus, not just one kind of personality development.

We draw no conclusions from our personal experience in this area. We only raise the question. Most people within the church in the experience of the author (which is obviously very limited!) have been basic "F". Thus we can raise the question, and we can look to the Scripture for wisdom. Perhaps there are whole sections of the Body of Christ effectively ministering among the basic "R"s of the nation and the world.

As we search the Scripture for wisdom in this area, we note:

I Corinthians 14:26
26. What is {the outcome} then, brethren? When you assemble, each one has a psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has a tongue, has an interpretation. Let all things be done for edification.

I Corinthians 14:29
29. And let two or three prophets speak, and let the others pass judgment.
30. But if a revelation is made to another who is seated, let the first keep silent.
31. For you can all prophesy one by one, so that all may learn and all may be exhorted;

In these verses, we see wisdom for Christian gatherings. When all bring something or are given something from the Holy Spirit to share, then all personality types are edified. When 2 or 3 prophets speak, all personality types can be instructed as the Holy Spirit uses different human instruments to instruct different people with varying personality types. When one person controls the whole gathering, all the members suffer because the wisdom of God is being ignored concerning the diversity of the people He has created. As our Creator, He knows how His people should be instructed and learn.

5.5 "R" and "F" Thinking

We discovered an example of "R" and "F" approach to developing theological principles in the book, Jewish New Testament Commentary by David H. Stern. This excerpt is on page 362.

However, Judaism, following biblical and Middle Eastern thought patterns, prefers to build inductively from particular examples to more general principles; whereas Christian theology, heavily influenced by Greek ways of thinking, tends to start with general principles and work deductively to implications for particular situations. For this reason, Jewish thinkers find themselves uncomfortable not so much with particular terminology as with the whole theologizing enterprise.

In this excerpt, we see a description of "R" thinking in the words, "from particular examples to more general principles." This is the "R" method of working from details and then developing general concepts and principles. We see a description of "F" thinking in the words "tends to start with general principles and word deductively to implications for particular situations." This is the "F" method of working from the big picture (general concepts) and working towards particulars.

This passage raises interesting questions about the development of Christian thought. If, as this passage asserts, most Christian theology has been developed by "F" thinkers, does this mean that the church is in need of the revelation which would be brought out by "R" thinkers studying the Scriptures?

5.6 The "A" and Comfort

The Role Adaptive ("A") person will make everyone else feel comfortable. For example, consider a college admissions office where the receptionist greets everyone who comes through the door. Some of the people are apprehensive about the interview they are about to have with an admissions officer. If the receptionist is an "A", everyone who enters will feel comfortable, well liked and wanted.

The "A" makes the ideal greeter at the back door of a traditional church. In this situation, there is not time to have a substantial conversation. All that can be done is demonstrate that all are welcome. The "U" as a greeter, with his social ineptness, may turn people away even though his heart is full of love. The "A" however, will be able make each one feel wanted and comfortable so the visitor may stay long enough to be exposed to the Gospel and to strong believers in the church. However, the difficulty an "A" has with creating expectations he cannot meet may occur here. The "A" greeter (or the church at large) may not live up to the expectations he has given the visitor. The visitor may feel the church is friendly, warm, loving etc. because of the "A" personality and then discover that there is strife, disorder, and every evil thing. Disillusionment may set in if each visitor isn't set into the local body by the Holy Spirit.

5.7 Business

We will make two simple applications of PAS in business.

First, many readers will be aware that some people can tolerate very long commutes to work and seem comfortable with it. Others become very agitated with even modest commutes and start talking about changing jobs or moving to be closer to work.

What happens is that "I" individuals can tolerate the long commute. To an "I", the long commute is a time to re-charge and energize. Without the commute, the "I" would need to get off by himself when he arrives home. With the commute, he can be energized and ready to relate to his family when he arrives home. We have tested this in a lighthearted manner as follows. When encountering someone who has a long commute by choice, and who seems to tolerate it with ease, we say "and you probably memorize phone numbers well too!" (a typical "I" strength). This statement gets a puzzled look and a, "why yes, I do."

The "E", on the other hand, finds the long commute emotionally draining. He arrives home very worn out and exhausted. To the "E", the long commute is not a time to think things through and energize, but a tiring, draining time of being alone, deprived of relating. A strong "E" would prefer to walk out of work, straight from a meeting, and into his home where he can talk about his day with the family.

Our second application in business is the way different individuals approach meetings. Envision a situation where a number of people must meet to develop a business plan or strategy (e.g. a plan to increase sales, or a plan for training people to use a new set of equipment). The "I" individuals will find the meeting context to be draining. They will be heard to say, "can we break for a while so I can go think about this?" On the contrary, the "E" thinks best while in the meeting discussing the situation. When the decision is made to stop the meeting for the afternoon so everyone can go think up his own ideas so they can come back together tomorrow, the "E" is perplexed because he knows that he only thinks up new ideas while relating in the meeting. Back at his own desk, he can come up with no new ideas.

5.8 Schools

In PAS terms, we can say that schools are made for a certain personality profile. We carefully use the words "schools are made for" rather than "a certain type of person is made for school." We do this because the latter wording implies that there is something wrong with people who are not made for schools! Let's get our history straight - God made people, not schools.

Schools are made for "R" children who learn by rote and can be taught details. Schools are not designed to teach by concept. There have been attempts to adapt some schools for "F" children, such as "new math" or hands-on learning. However, in our view, such attempts have the result that these methods not only fail to teach the "R" children, but also fail to succeed in their goal of teaching the "F" children.

The inherent difficulty of institutional schools is instructing the diverse set of children God has made. In a classroom, there are a variety of personalities. In addition to a mix of "R" and "F" children, there are a mixture of "I" and "E" children and of "A" and "U" children. The next chapter will discuss many examples of differences in teaching children with different personalities. One great reason for the success of home education is the ability to teach each child as an individual created by God. In home education, one to one tutoring allows adaptation of curriculum, methods, and schedule to each child.

Because of the strength of one to one tutoring, we believe that home educators make a serious error when they attempt to move to "group teaching", especially with more than 2 or 3 children. "Group teaching" sounds attractive, but in our experience, the primary motivations are socialization, insecurity, and lack of specialized skills. When a family does not have a skill in either father or mother which is required for instruction of the children, it is the Biblical responsibility of the father to find a suitable tutor for his children. The immaturity of the Body of Christ seeks paid experts rather than unpaid servants who willingly share time, talents, and gifting to serve other families. We pray that the next generation will become a mature Body of Christ in this area. In the meantime, fathers must be resourceful and careful that they do not lose (or give away) their authority and oversight over the training of their children.

If we look at the history of education, we see that "group teaching" is a forerunner of another round of creating schools. After "group teaching", the next temptation is a paid organizer ("superintendent") and so forth until the one to one advantages of home education are lost.

6.0 Educational Applications

6.1 The Place of Testing

Before discussing specific applications of personality to education using the PAS, we need to look at psychological testing in general.

Various kinds of standardized tests have been used in education for many years such as the Stanford Achievement tests and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. In recent years, psychological tests, which concentrate on motivations, attitudes, and relationships have come into subtle usage in schools, often without parental knowledge or approval (11) There are two concerns for home educators in this regard.

  1. Home educators often come under pressure to use the same tests that are used in state schools.
  2. Home educators often feel pressure from peers and themselves to take advantage of the services of educational "experts".

In spite of the amount of money spent on testing and innovations in state schools, the effectiveness of those schools demonstrates that the "experts" do not possess a set of superior testing tools, diagnostic techniques, or special programs for learning! We believe that this is because the "experts" do not know their Creator and are cut off from the true source of wisdom and understanding.

We encourage home educating parents that as Christian home educators, they are the ones on the cutting edge of educational method development. Furthermore, the applications in this chapter, being built on the foundation of family centered, Christ centered, home education, are applications beyond most of what is discussed and considered "innovative" in state schools. Remember that much of the work of educational experts, whether in curriculum development or diagnostic testing, is spent in Godless pursuits such as training children to be peer dependent, sex education, or training in socialism. Much recent effort in state education with regard to diagnostic testing does not even address the practical areas addressed in this chapter because it focuses on development of certain attitudes and (anti-Christian) religious beliefs such as humanism or mother-earth religion.

Finally, the PAS itself, is, we believe, a superior diagnostic tool for educational applications.

6.2 Specific Applications
Before discussing specific applications to education, we want to emphasize that much of the value to the reader lies in being aware of the range of differences among individuals. It is not necessary to know the PAS profiles of children in order to use this information. If you know that various differences exist, then you know to be on the lookout for these differences and be encouraged to experiment and be confident when God leads you into a method or approach very different from your prior experience.

6.3 Talk About It versus Think About It

We pointed out earlier that externalizers want to talk things through while internalizers want to think things through. Externalizers will learn best when they have the opportunity to talk through each lesson with Mom or Dad or in some cases a brother or sister. For externalizers, many lessons, especially with younger children, can be done entirely orally. Furthermore, externalizers will actually learn more by talking through their lessons rather than merely studying and writing them.

Internalizers, however, can become impatient when the parent teaching them attempts to talk through and discuss lessons. An internalizer will learn best with time to think through his lessons, often studying independently. It is important (as we will discuss later) that a parent be certain that the internalizer is doing his work and not off doing other things while giving him time to think through lessons.

Another way to put this is to say that "E" children need help to develop intellectual discipline and work independently and "I" children need help to develop intellectual discipline and stay in contact with reality.

Children can also be taught to respect the learning and teaching needs of parents. An internalizer mother needs time to go think things through such as lesson plans, subject matter, and educational methods. An externalizer mother will need time with the father to talk through plans, subject matter and methods.

6.4 Study Environment

Some children (and adults) study best in a very quiet environment. This is true of externalizers. Externalizers (especially if "F" and/or if "Eu") will be distracted by relating to every distraction. The "E" will become involved in every conversation he can hear, every construction project he can see or hear and every radio program. Often, an "E" student will try to convince his parents that he studies best with a radio going. This is not true. It is true that he likes to listen to the radio rather than do the "I" work of studying.

One way to achieve a quiet environment for an externalizer can be quite simple. Provide background (or white) noise such as a quietly humming fan which blocks out the "people" noise of an active family. Another good kind of white noise is natural noise such as the chirping birds.

By contrast, an "I" can work and study well even with distractions. The "Iu" (and especially "Iuu") study best with distractions. The "Iu" left in a quiet, serene place to study will internalize to the point of doing nothing with his lessons. The "Iu" will study best in the family room with people talking and even music playing or a radio playing. What we believe happens is that the distractions keep the "Iu" in contact with his studies. This is in contrast to the "Eu" for whom the distractions take him out of contact with his studies.

This same principle applies to other activities such as organizing a room, planning a trip, or doing lesson plans. The "E" does best with a distraction free environment whereas the "I" does best with distractions. An "E" (especially if also "F") has difficulty organizing his bedroom while listening to music or while talking to someone.

6.5 Workbook versus Textbook

One application of the above principles with regard to "E" and "I" is in curriculum. What we write here has not been subjected to rigorous research. It is an observation and theory of the authors. However, we believe it to be sound. When we started home education, we used some workbook programs (e.g. A.C.E. or Alpha Omega Lifepac) but preferred textbooks. Our oldest son had used workbooks in school and was not fond of them! As time went on, it became clear that our children did not like or do well with workbooks. Our temptation was to globally recommend to others to not use workbook curriculums. However, we were tempered in our judgement by examples of strong, successful families who used workbook curriculums exclusively. They were very successful, and the children liked the programs. This was always a puzzle to us, but we have always accepted that God made each family His way.

Through a series of events, however, we came to a possible understanding of what we observed. We have checked our understanding in working with a number of adults and children. At the extremes, the "Eu" does not like workbooks. It seems that the act of constantly picking up a pencil and writing an answer (as is required in workbooks) is very distracting.

On the contrary, the "Iu" finds textbooks difficult. An "Iu", especially an "Iuu" or "I+u+", has difficulty staying with a textbook. He will internalize to the point that he does not like textbooks because he knows that when he sits down to read and study one, he will lose contact. This is a somewhat frightening prospect. Workbooks, however, with the requirement to frequently pick up a pencil and write an answer, keep the "Iu" involved. Thus, the "Iu" enjoys workbooks and will be more successful with them than with textbooks.

Furthermore, workbooks provide direction which is needed by "I" children (see next topic). An "E" can get sufficiently involved with and interact with a textbook as the material is presented as an unbroken chain. In workbooks, this process is forever being disrupted by "fill in the blanks", etc.

6.6 Direction

Another difference between the "E" and "I" is in amount of direction needed. Recall from our chapter on PAS that the "Ic" may need some external direction to get started on a project, a career path, or long term goal, but once started, the "Ic" is unstoppable. The "Iu" individual needs more direction. "Iu" children (and older children) work well with a lot of direction in the form of parental guidelines, goals, and objectives. Often, in later life, "Iu" individuals will team up with strong leaders in marriage, work, and social relationships.

"E" individuals, especially "ER" individuals are more likely to set their own objectives and goals. This sounds like a "better" person, but this is a misinterpretation of what we are saying. Two strong willed "Ec" individuals can find it very difficult to work together. Also, remember that we are talking about personality, not spiritual commitment. An "ER" can be "strong" in immoral things and an "Iu" can be very firm in a decision for Christ even while accepting direction within the bounds of his faith.

6.7 The "I" in School

In a school situation, children who are "Iu" may be left alone since they are quiet and cause little trouble. Of course, they are not learning either. This is the greatest danger for the "I" child in school because he will not be learning. Because the school is content to allow children who don't cause trouble to continue to sit and be quiet, they will lose valuable years of learning. The "Iu" child needs a lot of direction which is not usually available in the classroom setting with its lack of individual, personal tutoring.

If children are "Ic", they are defending against their "I" which is done by becoming extroverted. The organized group activity of school is often a very comfortable place for an "Ic". There is lots of activity to help the "Ic" guard against his primitive "I" but little demand for relating. Furthermore, the "Ic" is often a good student capable of memorizing and disciplined mental work. A danger for the "Ic" in a school environment occurs when he performs his intellectual work by organized talking, such as preferring to talk himself through his math problems. This is disruptive in a group (classroom) situation and the "Ic" child may be labeled "disruptive", "can't work alone", or "rebellious".

6.8 Sibling Variety.

Before going to other educational applications of PAS, we pause to inform the reader that within a family, children may differ significantly. Especially in the case where the parents are different from each other, it is quite common for one child to be a strong "I" and another to be a strong "E". Therefore, it is important for parents to be diligent in seeking the wisdom of the Holy Spirit about how to train each child. The methods discovered to be successful for one child may not be as successful for another child. This is not an issue of birth order. It is an issue of different personalities.

6.9 Intellectualization

Both the "Ic" and "Ec" adjustments are considered the "good student" adjustments, or intellectualized adjustments. The two are, however, intellectual in different ways. We say that the "Ec" is intellectual but in a practical way. For example, an "Ec" will be interested in courses in how to study better, how to read faster, how to improve his memory and so forth. He is trying to be intellectual (towards "I") but approaching it in a very practical ("E") way by taking practical steps to be intellectual.

We say that the "Ic" is practical, but in an intellectual way. The "Ic" will be interested in courses which can teach him how to work with people, how to manage people, how to run meetings, and so forth. He is trying to be very practical and people oriented (towards "E") but approaching it in an intellectual ("I") way by studying to learn how to manage people and relate to people.

6.10 R-F and the Need for Understanding

We noted in an earlier chapter that the "R" learns by rote and learns step-by-step whereas the "F" learns by feel and needs to know the big picture. An "F" has a strong need to understand why he is being asked to learn something before he can understand what he is learning. Please note that this "F" need for understanding can often look similar to childhood laziness which says "Why do I need to learn this?" but really means "I don't want to do this because it is work."

We will use instruction in American government as an example. The "R" will learn government best by starting with details and learning the exact rules and procedures surrounding the three branches of government. As he learns the details of how the branches of government operate, the details of when they meet, how they are elected, and exact responsibilities, he will come to an understanding of broader principles of American government.

The "F" will learn government best by starting with great themes and principles and the reasons behind our form of government. Only then will he be ready to fill in some details.

If you start by teaching the "F" all of the details, he will appear confused and will have difficulty understanding simple material. This is because he cannot relate the details to a larger picture. If you start by teaching the "R" the great themes and principles, he will appear to be grasping it very slowly. He will complain that you are not telling him what you want him to learn - the great themes are vapor to him without details.

6.11 R-F Literal

The "R" is called "Regulated/Literal" as opposed to the "F" who is "Flexible/Sensitive". The "R"s focus on detail (seeing the trees and missing the forest) makes him very literal. As such, the "R" has difficulty with work which requires grasping subtleties and feelings. Probably no area presents more difficulty than interpreting poetry which is not literal. This does not mean that an "R" cannot appreciate poetry. An "R" child will often be very intrigued by the various poetic devices (metaphor, simile etc.) as long as he has someone to show him specific examples of their use.

The "F" is the person who can see through a poem to what the author is saying even though the literal words do not say it.

To make an "R" (especially an "R+") write poetry, can be cruel torture!

6.12 The "R" and Procedures

Many tasks are procedural in nature. Learning to perform the task requires learning specific procedures. For example, the use of computer programs such as word processors, spread sheets, or print managers is a procedural task. An "F" (especially an "F+") may find such tasks very difficult to learn. Procedural tasks include:

6.13 Creative Writing

Educators have gone through large swings in how they teach composition. A recent trend has been to assign young children creative writing tasks in the belief that this will hold their interest. First of all, we state a general principle that if a child is assigned creative writing tasks before he has a firm grasp of the mechanics of writing (spelling, punctuation etc.), he will find the task of composition very frustrating. Even if he can think what to write, he cannot transfer his thoughts to paper readily. He has to work so hard on the mechanics that he loses track of his purpose. We strongly recommend against using creative writing as the first writing exercise a child does.

Creative writing can also lead to moral problems when children are encouraged to write based upon characters and actions in popular entertainment (movies, TV, toys) which are immoral.

Beyond the general concerns expressed above, there are PAS considerations with creative writing. We are speaking of creative writing in the sense of making up stories or variations of known stories. Not all children are equally well prepared to do creative writing. In general, "I" children will be more creative (a richer internal landscape) than "E" children and "F" children will be more creative than literal "R" children. The "I" child can create a vivid reality of an entire story in his head. Thus at the two extremes, the "IF" child will do best at creative writing and "ER" children will be frustrated because they cannot think what to write about. Because of this difference in personality, it is unwise to use creative writing as the major practice for composition.

When the purpose is to teach writing skills, a variety of kinds of assignments can be used. Parents can easily observe what kinds of writing are suited to different children. For example, the "ER" child can be assigned tasks of writing instructions (how to make something) or descriptions of how something works. The "EF" child can be assigned assignments which include how he feels and how he perceives others feel in situations. Both of these are "E" exercises in that they deal with external reality. Other writing assignments include book reports, descriptions of current events which are discussed in the family, and logical arguments (which can begin on a very elementary level such as why we should make certain good moral choices). We conclude with the caution that all children should experience a variety of writing assignments. Our purpose is to expand thinking about the kinds of writing assignments which can be assigned. We don't want our comments to be construed to limit some children to only a narrow range of writing assignments.

6.14 A-U Teaching Methods

With regard to teaching methods, there is one simple caution for teaching "A" (role adaptive) children and a different caution for teaching "U" (role uniform) children.

The "A" child is socially dependent and will often be more interested in social interactions than in intellectual achievement. The "A" child can become a "con" man to his teacher - not in the moral sense of cheating - but in the sense of being more motivated to please the teacher by charm than by achievement. The caution when teaching the "A" child is to be certain that the child is actually learning the material. Because parents always want their children to do well, they eagerly look for signs that the child has learned the material. Thus, they are very susceptible to fall for the social charm of the "A" child. The solution is simple. Parents should "over teach" the "A" child to be certain that he knows the material. Remember, with an "A" child, you are not dealing with a moral choice to deceive you but with a child who has good social skills. The parent, who always wants the child to succeed, will mistake good social responses for mastery of material.

The "A" child can become confused and hurt when a parent shows disillusionment over the "A" child's inability to perform up to the expectations built up in the parent. This happens because the "A" child will appear to know more than he does due to his social skills.

The caution when teaching a "U" child is to be wary of mistaking social blunders for lack of mastery of material. The "U" child will often appear to know less than he does. The "U" child may need encouragement because he is so accustomed to rejection.

Also, the "U" child is more prone to misinterpreting instructions for exercises and test questions than an "A" child. This is especially true when the child is "R" and "U". Parents can help children who seem to have difficulty in interpreting instructions carefully by training them to read instructions twice, by training them to repeat instructions to the parent, by training them to see how many tasks are given, and by training them in specific types of exercises and test questions so that when they encounter them in an important situation (e.g. college entrance exams), they will be familiar with the instructions and will not under-perform due to misinterpreting instructions.

6.15 A-U and Teaching Techniques

In today's world of entertainment, there has been a lot of effort in curriculum development to make textbooks, worksheets, exercises, tests, and workbooks "interesting." There is a grave danger in using "cute" exercises and tests because the parent may end up testing a primitive (which may be genetic) personality factor and not the subject material.

Specific examples of the kinds of exercises and tests to which we refer are exercises made into games with pictures to match, or pictures in which to find the missing part. As seen in Appendix A, the test for the primitive A-U factor is a test in which the subject puts cartoon stories of social situations into the proper order. This depends upon seeing the social queues in the pictures. If you give a "U" child an exercise or test which depends upon this ability, and not his subject matter knowledge, he will perform poorly (and be very frustrated) even though he knows the subject matter. The parent teaching the child may be frustrated because the parent thought he was giving the child something which would be "fun", and the child reacts badly or performs below his achievement level.

Some exercises are turned into games with variations of the game of finding what is wrong with a picture. This is the test for compensation of the A-U dimension. The "Uu" (uncompensated "U") and "Ac" (compensated "A") do poorly on this exercise. Thus, the "Uu" and "Ac" will perform poorly and probably be frustrated by such exercises. The parent/teacher will not be testing subject matter but rather a personality trait which cannot be trained by more studying of the subject matter! (0)

Some puzzles become tests of "R" versus "F". The "R" can focus on one piece of a puzzle and see where the parts fit, while the "F" sees the whole picture but has great difficulty focusing on one small piece within the pattern. Thus some puzzle activities become an "R" versus "F" test. (12)

Also, note that "R" children like and perform well on multiple choice tests. The focused, procedural "R" develops a method to systematically attack multiple choice. Also, the "R", especially the "Rc", likes the strict bounds. There is no danger that he is unaware of the answer since all possible answers are right there on the page. The idea that the answer is exactly "A" or "B" or "C" is comforting to an "R". The "F" child performs less well on multiple choice since the "F" sees all the subtleties and may easily see how several answers are partly right, and none of them is really the best answer. The "F" displays his mastery better with essay tests where his ability to see the whole picture and develop subtleties and relationships will shine.

In multiple choice tests, the "R" prefers the most rigid form of multiple choice test where there is exactly one answer. Many "R" individuals do not like multiple choice when one of the answers is "all of the above" or "none of the above". For the "Rc", who is anxious that he may fail to be sensitive to some subtlety, these questions produce anxiety because suddenly he has to deal with many more possibilities.

6.16 R-F Subject/Career Preferences

In general, we find that the following subject/career preferences apply to "R" and "F" individuals. Please read the important notes on exceptions after reading this general list. We call these preferences in the sense that the student will like these subjects and do better in them. Other PAS factors affect these preferences, but the "R"/"F" difference is quite often dominant.


There are often notable exceptions. For example, many extremely creative mathematicians are highly intelligent "F" individuals. While the "F" in general is not as good in math (meaning the procedural rote subject in primary and secondary school) as an "R", if he is intelligent enough to conquer it, his creative "F" will make him the leading mathematician who develops new theories. Remember that Albert Einstein failed arithmetic.

Also, we often find math teachers who are "F" individuals. They are often "Fuc" individuals or "Fuc+" individuals who determines at an early age that he will conquer math. Having done so, he then determines to demonstrate his competence by teaching math.

"R" individuals who are really trying to be "F" ("Rc" or compensated "R") will often go into psychology and related fields as they attempt to become truly understanding people. However, the "R" will continue to be a patterned individual who reduces psychology to a set of rules and procedures to follow to help him be "sensitive." The "R" psychologist can greatly assist the "F" psychologist by bringing order and structure. As an example, Dr. Gittinger, the primary developer of the PAS model is an "F". However, several "R" individuals refined the test scoring methods.

We have discussed how "R" individuals learn best by starting with specifics and details while "F" individuals learn best by starting with the "big picture" and understanding "why". Since God is our maker, He knows the diversity He has made in us. He is the Master Teacher and has provided in His Word the Bible instruction for every person. Let us consider the different teaching styles of two gospels, Luke and John. We will look at the introduction to the two books:

Luke 1:1
1. Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile an account of the things accomplished among us,
2. just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word have handed them down to us,
3. it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write {it} out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus;
4. so that you might know the exact truth about the things you have been taught.
5. In the days of Herod, king of Judea, there was a certain priest named Zacharias, of the division of Abijah; and he had a wife from the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.
6. And they were both righteous in the sight of God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and requirements of the Lord.
7. And they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they were both advanced in years.
8. Now it came about, while he was performing his priestly service before God in the {appointed} order of his division,

Note that Luke sets out to write events carefully in consecutive order. Also, note that Luke dives into details by verse 5! Luke provides no overview of the Gospel.

John 1:1
1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
2. He was in the beginning with God.
3. All things came into being by Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being.
4. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men.
5. And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.
6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John.
7. He came for a witness, that he might bear witness of the light, that all might believe through him.
8. He was not the light, but {came} that he might bear witness of the light.
9. There was the true light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man.
10. He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him.
11. He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him.
12. But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, {even} to those who believe in His name,
13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
14. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth.

Note that in John, the entire revelation of Jesus the Messiah is unveiled in the opening verses.

We conclude that Luke is an example of instruction in an "R" style and John is instruction in an "F" style. When a new believer, who is an "R", is told to read John first, he may find the going very difficult. The "R" new believer is likely to get more from Luke. This does not mean that "R"s do not learn from John or that "F"s do not learn from Luke, but it does show how God deals with the diversity He has made among us. As another example, perhaps a new believer who is "E" (especially "Eu" or the basic level externalized "Ic"), might find the fast pace of Mark more edifying than the more contemplative John.

6.17 The Perfectionist

There are different kinds of perfectionists, but here we seek to describe one kind of perfectionist in PAS terms. The "Rc" individual is trying to become sensitive. The "Rc" does not like to discover that he has failed to be sensitive to something, whether it be the "best" choice on the menu in a restaurant or the trick to getting a math problem right. Therefore, the "Rc" is often a perfectionist, especially the "Ec" (who is trying to be a good intellectual). However, this perfectionism may not show up as neat and thorough work. It may show up as frustration with mistakes, especially ones he thinks he should have avoided. The "Rc" may not mind incomplete (or even sloppy) work as long as he is aware of what he is doing. The anxiety of the "Rc" is that he is insensitive and unaware. Thus, the "Rc" child can be very tolerant of an incomplete assignment because he fully understands what he is doing but come to tears over a minor error giving him 98% on an assignment.

6.18 Hearing

The "R" child, especially a strong "R", can often literally fail to "hear" instructions. The strong "R" may be highly focused on his work, the activity outside the window, the toy he is playing with, or the book he is reading and fail to be sensitive to an instruction you give. The parent may be in the middle of instructions when the focused "R" begins work at step 1 and stops hearing the remaining instructions. While a strong "R" child needs help and encouragement in how to pay attention, parents should not mis-interpret this failure to "hear" as a moral choice to "ignore" or "rebel." This problem is especially acute with a child who is both "R" and "U".

Parents can be fooled with an "ERU" child, because his "E" will make him capable of hearing his name mentioned half way across the house while failing to hear a clear instruction given while standing face to face. Because he is "E", he will want to be involved anywhere there is relating going on and especially if his own name is mentioned! Thus the strong "E" child may be in an upstairs bedroom and hear his name spoken in a normal voice downstairs and come running to be part of the discussion. This same child, if "R", especially strong "R" and "U" may honestly fail to hear a command spoken from within the same room when he is focused on another activity. Parents can help this child by having him repeat instructions and by working with him rather than treating every instance of not hearing as a moral choice. Parents should ask if the child heard the request and have him repeat it. Ask what he is focusing on and can he stop for now and give attention to the instructions.

6.19 Speed Reading

Speed reading, the ability to read very fast with reasonable comprehension, is a skill desired by many. Many of us have taken speed reading courses in our life time, and most of us know someone who can read very, very fast. Some of us have had success in learning to read fast and others have had the experience of taking a speed reading course with very little change in reading speed.

We believe that part of the explanation for the diversity in ability to speed read lies in personality. Studies of speed readers show that to some extent, speed readers are "skip" readers, that is, they obtain their speed by skipping many words and phrases. Thus, the key to speed reading is the ability to read only some of the words, phrases and sentences and still comprehend the main points of the material being read. In PAS terms, the "F" is far more likely to be an effective speed reader than the "R". This is because the "F" learns by first gaining an overall picture and this can be done while rapidly skipping through the material. Furthermore, the intuitive, sensitive, "F" can determine the main thoughts or the main story line without reading all the details. On the other hand, the "R" learns from details first. He then builds the main concept or story line from the details. Thus if an "R" skip reads, he has no idea of what he is reading. The "R" must read each detail to gain understanding, and this requires reading everything which implies reading slowly.

Another way in which people increase their reading speed, in addition to "skip" reading, is to concentrate and train themselves in two skills:

  1. Moving their eyes across the page a phrase at a time rather than a word at a time.
  2. Recognizing words more quickly by practicing word recognition.

Both of these skills favor the "F". The "F" is better at reading an entire phrase whereas the "R" must read all of the words in the phrase.

However, due to the concentration required to move one's eyes quickly in a disciplined manner, many "I" individuals will find it easier to be trained in some speed reading techniques than "E" individuals.

6.20 Versatility

Different children/students have varying intellectual and academic "versatility". A student with limited versatility is one who performs very well in subjects he likes and poorly in ones he does not like. Versatility is the relationship of how well a student likes a subject to his performance which is different from the relationship between ability and performance. Personality can affect this kind of versatility. For example, the combination of "Eu", "Rc" and "Uu" (and closely related profiles) often has very limited versatility. Such students can be helped by talking with them about the subjects they don't like to make those subjects good times of interpersonal relating (for the "Eu"). In this way, he may gain an interest in the subjects discussed and even enjoy them. Finally, he may add them them to the list of subjects he likes and will excel.

6.21 Teacher/Student

This is a large subject which will be mentioned more in the chapter on "Family Applications". One example is the case of an "I" parent/teacher with an "E" child/student. The same tension may occur with an "Ec" parent, especially an "Ec+". In this case, the "I" parent will feel the pressure of too much relating and become tired and de-energized. The solution for the "I" parent is to take time alone to recharge. This is an area where the father can be of tremendous help to the mother. A fathers needs to understand that when his wife complains of needing time alone to think, plan, and re-energize, this may be the way God has made her, and it is his job to provide this for her.

6.22 Computer "Games" & Learning

In our entertainment based culture, there are many temptations to yield to a program of entertaining children rather than training them. Many have attempted to justify entertainment with computer games because they are "educational." The most common lie is that computer games develop "hand-eye" coordination. This is a narrow truth. Each computer game is its own independent skill. The only thing learned by practicing a computer game is how to play that game!

We believe that the entertainment syndrome in our culture is essentially anti-intellectual. We can see in PAS terms that intellectualization and anti-intellectualization are different, opposite developmental paths. Since entertainment, whether in the form of music video or an educational computer game, supports a non-intellectual personality development, it cannot possibly support the opposite. Entertainment tends to support the "Eu" who enjoys the people aspects of the stories and the lack of intellectual demands they place on him. Entertainment supports the "Iu" who uses it for his thin contact with reality. In summary, entertainment and intellectual achievement are inherently incompatible.

6.23 Special Techniques

We have mentioned the use of puzzles as tests and differences in types of curriculum material. In general, we need to be on the lookout for special teaching techniques whose effectiveness may be very sensitive to the personality of the student. We often hear of people teaching special techniques for learning to mental arithmetic, techniques for memorization, techniques for building vocabulary, special methods to learn algebra etc. Many of these techniques contain insights of value to everyone. However, many techniques are far more effective with some personality types than with others. Knowing this, parents and students can try such techniques, exploit those which are effective, and discard those which are ineffective without feeling like they have failed or are inferior. What works for one person simply may not be equally effective for another!

The problem with this trial and error method is the amount of money parents can spend trying to find the "right" curriculum to match the student's learning style. There are several solutions to this problem:

For example, an uncompensated externalizer ("Eu") can take courses in memory techniques (usually written by "I+" individuals) and never gain a great ability to memorize. The "Eu" will enjoy the lectures and enjoy talking about the techniques, but he will not make practical use of them.

Because of the sensitivity of some methods and technique to personality, the reader should be cautious of declaring that a particular method is totally ineffective just because it did not work for him. If a technique is ineffective for the you, then you can counter claims that it will work for everyone, but you should be cautious to condemn it as ineffective for everyone.

6.24 The Basics

We have discussed many areas of education in this chapter. We have noted that some subjects are better suited to some children than others. How are we to treat this information in light of God's Word? We call the reader's attention back to the chapter, "Diversity and Absolutes". There are absolutes with regard to educational basics for the Christian. Before we begin with specific skills and subjects, we would say that that there should be several basics in any educational program for disciples of Jesus Christ.

  1. Knowing Christ.
  2. Obeying Christ.
  3. Making disciples of all the nations.

Within these confines, we can see where skills such as reading (to read God's Word), writing (to communicate the Gospel), or geography (to understand the nations who are to be discipled) and so forth fit in.

In light of what we have learned about the glorious diversity of talents God has made among His children, we must be cautious about interpreting "basics" too widely. We do children a dis-service when we make them adhere to a program of specific academics through high-school level just because that was the way we did it when we were in school! God may have more important things to be learned. This is an area just beginning to see development in Christian home education. In Christian education, we first had programs which were essentially secular subject material with a "Bible" course added or a paragraph added to each chapter to make it "Christian". We now have further development of Christian programs where the authors have attempted to make the entire approach Christian. We are confident that there is far more development required in this direction in order to educate our children as God wants them educated - to be strong disciples who know and demonstrate the love and power of God.

7.0 Family Interactions

This chapter discusses several applications of PAS in the family, especially applications of interest to home educating families. The first application is one we have dealt with earlier in the book - diversity and absolutes. Christian parents are eager to train their children to be of sound character and work hard to be diligent in discipline. Often, rebellion and laziness are exposed during academic work, and thus home education becomes an important place for training character. When training character as part of home education, there are two errors parents can make. The errors are the same two errors we discussed earlier in the chapter "Diversity and Absolutes". They are:

  1. We can make an absolute where God allows diversity. For example, we can assume that all children should learn long division by a certain age and treat failure to do long division at that age as a discipline problem. (Or we can ere by assuming that the child has a "learning" problem). Another example is that we can assume that all children can print neatly or read by a certain age. A common error is the assumption that all children will understand and like poetry. This assumption arises when parents notice that children like songs when they are young. God made us all to like songs, but not all can understand the subtleties of poetry and therefore like poetry. No amount of discipline will change this inability (this is heavily influenced by the R-F dimension which seems to be genetic).
  2. We can allow individual diversity where God has made absolutes. For example, honor and respect for parents by children is an absolute. Disrespect cannot be tolerated on the basis of personality differences. Screaming instead of normal speech is often tolerated and justified on the basis of personality (and some children may scream earlier or more), but the Bible warns us against "outbursts of anger" and "a gentle answer turns away wrath." The book of Galatians shows us deeds of the flesh and deeds of the spirit:

    Galatians 5:19
    18. Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality, impurity, sensuality,
    19. idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, disputes, dissensions, factions,
    20. envying, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these, of which I forewarn you just as I have forewarned you that those who practice such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.
    21. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,
    22. gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law.

    If a child chooses deeds of the flesh, his personality may affect which deeds of the flesh he tolerates. When a child walks in the spirit, his personality may affect which fruit of the spirit is most evident. But God has clearly set the line between deeds of the flesh and fruit of the spirit!

7.1 Parent/Child Diversity

Within a family, parents may be of diverse personality types. This means that the children may differ from one parent. In fact, it seems that PAS factors are like other genetic factors and that recessive factors can appear so that children can be different from either parent! This means that an IR mother, who needs time alone to think and re-energize, and who learns and studies by rote and starting with details may have EF children who are very distractible, need to be taught by concept and feel starting with the big picture and who have high needs for relating. The EF child wants to learn by talking things through including all of the subtleties. This may seem like a problem situation, and it can be, but we must remember that God has made each family. If we seek His wisdom, we can know the way to teach and relate. The important thing is for each parent to be aware of the difference between absolutes of God and diversities of personality.

Another example of potential difficulty occurs when the parent and child are the same. This may sound surprising, but it can be more challenging than being different. Strains arise when both parent and child are the same primitive in a dimension, but both are compensated. For example, if both parent and child are "Ec" (compensated Externalizers), both are naturally relating, externally oriented, "see, feel, touch" people. However, both are trying to guard against the tendency to relate too much. Both are determined to be intellectually disciplined. The strain comes when both see in the other the very traits of need to relate, intellectual inferiority, lack of mental discipline and dependence on people that each is trying to guard against. Also, an "Ec" is a very determined person. He has learned to be very disciplined, especially mentally, and this leads to strongly held positions and directions. In a household, an "Ec" likes to determine how things are done, where things are kept, and the family schedule. Thus multiple "Ec" individuals in a household can clash. When this happens, it is time for Christian instruction in the absolutes of respect for one another, the heart of a servant, and respect for parents.

Likewise, when parent and child are both "Ic" (compensated Internalizer), strain can arise because both are guarding against their primitive tendency to withdraw into their internal realm. However, both see this very tendency to internalize, to get alone to think or re-energize in the other one. Also, "Ic" individuals, once set on a course, are very determined in following through on that course. Therefore, there is the potential for two "Ic" individuals to clash when they choose different courses. Again, it is crucial for parents to know what is diversity and what are Biblical absolutes. Choice of a particular course of study or career may be a parental choice, but without a compelling Word from God in the specific situation, is not an absolute. Therefore, parents must be willing to yield in such areas which are not absolutes.

7.2 Parental Diversity

Just as there can be diversities between parents and children, so there are diversities between parents. We have found it very interesting over the years to observe which types of personalities tend to marry each other and to see how the different types work together. Notice our wording, "which personalities tend to marry each other". We do not believe that it is correct to say that only certain personalities should marry each other. God knows the kind of life, the cultures, and situations which lie ahead for each married couple and only He knows therefore who should be together. Thus, we counsel that the most important factor in selecting a mate is to know God's will! Remember, God knows all about personality as well as the future.

A knowledge of personality diversity and interaction can help in counseling young men and women in one case. Sometimes, young people get caught up in our cultural expectation of romance and assume that because they "love" each other, everything will be wonderful. In this case, ears can become very dull to the voice of the Holy Spirit of God or parents. Perhaps, a calm discussion of personality factors can be one way to help young people to step back and consider the realities of life long married life. Of course, it is best to do this instruction from age 1!

We have observed the following common match-ups in marriage. Remember that the author is a certain personality and due to business associations, Christian teaching styles, and personal affinities, is likely to have seen seen match-ups more frequently than others. Thus while the descriptions below are good examples of how interactions occur, they do not mean that many, many other combinations are not common and productive. The purpose of this discussion is primarily to illustrate interpersonal interactions, not to create a set of rules concerning who should marry whom.

We have seldom observed the following match-ups. This is probably because people with these sets of personality factors would not get to the point of marriage.

While in the author's experience, the above combinations seldom occur in marriage, we may often find that people who are good friends will have these combinations of personalities. It is amazing how God will put us in fellowship with diverse kinds of people to accomplish His purposes.

Finally, a study of personality in PAS terms demonstrates that in any relationship, there are areas of tension and pressure. Some personality combinations have more natural areas of tension and clash than others. If we compare marriage to a house, different personality combinations may determine whether light winds or strong storms blow against the house. Of greater importance is how strong the foundation of the house is. A marriage built on a covenant made to God and each other will withstand any winds. A marriage built on a foundation of natural convenience and romance will fall with light breezes.

7.3 The Gifted One

Our final comment on family relationships is to encourage each family to allow the gifted one in a family to serve the others. This applies to husbands and wives and to parents and children. For example, in a family with an "Rc" man and an "Fu" woman, the "Rc" man, in his insensitivity (primitive "R") may squash his wife's creativity by not allowing her to serve the family in this way. Both will suffer; she from being suppressed and he from missing out on what God has given him in his wife.

As another example, a family may have one family member who is most socially adept. Let this person (parent or child) serve the others by starting friendships with new families on the street, asking directions when lost, or making a tricky telephone call about a defective purchase.

As another example, the ERU is often called the "doer". Let the "ERU"s in a family serve by being "doers" whether in maintaining the car, running errands, helping other families in need in practical ways, or building a basketball court for all the local home schooling children to use. Others may provide creative ideas and this may be their gift to the rather uncreative ERU.

7.4 Discipline

In addition to the basic discipline of the "rod of correction", parents often choose to use other forms of discipline or setup other consequences for certain behavior. We discourage parents from relying too heavily on other forms of discipline such as confinement to a room in place of the rod because some forms of discipline serve to harbor resentment and do not allow for the sin (rebellion, foolishness, willfulness) to be quickly put in the past. We especially discourage "grounding". Often "grounding" is used by parents to stop children from going places or participating in activities which are wrong and should never be allowed! Thus parents end up saying, "If you obey in one area, then you can go sin in another." Grounding for extended periods of time creates fertile ground for satan to build up resentment and bitterness as the child encounters his restrictions day after day.

Nonetheless, there are times when consequences for certain actions serve to keep a rebellious child from getting what he wants. For example, when a child wants to be rude and the center of attention, a consequence of being sent out of the room can be effective.

We must also be cautious with discipline other than the rod because what is effective for some children is not with others. For example, sending a child who is an "I" to his room may not have the desired effect. For many "I" children, this may be a reward because he wants to get away from demands to relate and be involved. For a strong "E" child who is rude to get attention, sending him to his room may be very effective because he does not like being away from people and missing what they are talking about.

Also, in general, "F" children have a lower threshold of pain, both physical and emotional, than "R" children. Therefore, parents need the wisdom of the Holy Spirit to effectively discipline and chastise each child. Parents need the wisdom of the Holy Spirit, not a knowledge of personality types, because response to discipline can be affected by other factors. For example, the "R" may not really notice the spanking, but as an "A", he has learned just the right response to convince his parents that he has been disciplined severely. He thus avoids true discipline.

7.5 The "A" and Asking

We have observed a difference in behavior in and "A" child and a "U" child with regard to asking parents for permission to do something. This can apply to asking for food, asking to play with a certain toy, or asking to play with a friend. The "A" child is more likely to come and ask the parent for permission (approval), even if the parent is likely to say "No." The "A" child assumes that he can charm the parent into saying "Yes." Furthermore, the "A" child needs the social approval. The "U" child knows that his experience is rejection and "No", so he is more likely to just go and do what he wants without asking. This same phenomena can occur with regard to disobedience. The "A" child will sometimes come and tell the parent he is planning to disobey! Another example occurs when an item (toy, furniture) has been broken. The "A" child is more likely to immediately come and tell the parent about the disaster. In contrast, the "U" child does not tell the parent in advance if he plans to disobey, and the "U" child rarely comes and reports a broken household item. The parents must discover the broken item themselves.

This difference requires discernment because the "A" child appears more obedient to parents (a moral choice) than he really is and the "U" child appears less obedient than he really is.

8.0 Career Applications

Often, among people working in the same job, there are strong personality similarities. This might lead us to believe that we could accurately predict what career path would be best for each PAS profile. The picture is not, however, so simple.

It is true that in some careers, there are large numbers of people with similar profiles. This is especially true within a single company or organization where not only is the job similar, but the working culture leads to promotion and success of a certain type of individual.

In this chapter, we will attempt to make some generalizations about careers in light of PAS factors. Please note that these general comments should never be interpreted to restrict an individual from trying anything. Often, God enables people to succeed in ways we might not easily predict. Also, careers often include very diverse activities. For example, a "computer programmer" may be a person who sits by himself and writes programs all day. Or it may be a person who meets with users of the computer to discuss their business needs. Or it may be a person who helps a team of several others work together as a unit. Thus, even though they are all called "computer programmers", they do very different jobs. In many cases, the people themselves define the job. For example, a sales person may mold the job to fit his own personality by developing strategies and methods he can use. He may develop systematic programs or he may rely on social graces.

As another example, we can consider student activities as a job. Even though all are called students, we have seen in earlier chapters that different individuals define the "job" of student very differently.

Below is a list of generalizations of career preferences for some PAS configurations. All are subject to exceptions!

"E" and "R"
The "E" and "R" is a practical minded, externally oriented person. When there is not significant compensation, the "ER" leans towards manual, manipulative work. Even intellectualized "ER" individuals (e.g. a computer engineer) will enjoy manual, manipulative work.
The "F" will be found in many creative tasks. "F" individuals will be creative artists and creative writers. Also, the "F" will be inclined to areas requiring work by feel such as social work, counseling, or management consulting.

Even the compensated "F" ("Fc") is often found in the so called "caring" professions. This can be a good outlet for the primitive "F" sensitivity in a controlled environment where emotional involvement can be protected.

The "Eu" (uncompensated "E") and "Iu" (uncompensated "I") are not usually good leaders. They can be very good followers but do not enjoy taking charge. The "Ec" is a "take charge" person. The "Ic" may also enjoy and perform well in roles of leadership.
"R" and "F"
The "F" may see many "R" activities (engineering, administration) as rote and boring. The "R" may see "F" activities such as hospital work or social work as distasteful. We are thankful that God has made the church, the Body of Christ, a many membered body (remember I Corinthians 12 and 14) with members for every task.


8.1 Appendix 1 - Testing

In this appendix, our objective is to provide enough information on the test interpretation associated with PAS to give the reader an appreciation of how they are related. At the same time, we have two other objectives of not being overly technical in our terminology and of not giving so much information so as to compromise the test results should any readers find themselves taking the test in the future.

To meet these objectives, we will describe an overview of the test and then use three specific examples of how subtests within the test relate to personality factors in PAS. We will pick three subtests which can be be easily described without giving away anything which would invalidate the results should a reader take the test.

8.1.1 Overview

Remember that PAS had its origins when John Gittinger noticed that relative scores on various subtests within a common psychological test seemed to relate to observed personality differences. The test was the Wechsler-Bellevue test of adult intelligence, an IQ test. David Wechsler was the primary developer of this test. His book, The Measurement of Adult Intelligence is available in libraries for those interested in how such a test was developed. For PAS purposes, the IQ aspects are not of interest. The test consists of a number of subtests. Not all subtests available in the Wechsler are used for PAS interpretation. Ten subtests are used. The test is orally administered, one-on-one, and takes 60-90 minutes. It is commonly administered as an IQ test by school psychologists.

Since PAS was developed, the test has undergone further development. Most of the development has been in revisions whose purpose was to adapt to changes in culture from generation to generation and to the general knowledge which is within the experience of most people. Each revision has required extensive work to re-establish scoring norms. This is done by administering the test to a large body (1700) of subjects carefully selected to be "random" and representative of all racial and cultural groups. This standardization process is not done in light of PAS factors.

There has been a version of the test called the "WAIS" (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale") and more recently the "WAIS-R" or WAIS-Revised. Today, school psychologists and other users would be changing to use the WAIS-R. The test is developed and sold by the Psychological Corporation.

For simplicity, we will refer to the test generically as the WAIS, meaning any version. Many PAS users score some subtests using older scoring keys because those keys reflect the scoring which best reveals PAS factors.

When the WAIS is scored, each subtest is scored and the raw scores (e.g. how many right) are scaled to scaled scores in the range of 1-20. Once these scores are obtained using standard WAIS scoring, (14) then PAS interpretation can be done. In PAS interpretation, the following steps are performed:

  1. Calculate a Normal Level from all the scores. This is a computed baseline score used to compare to other scores. It is like an average, but the calculation takes into account the pattern of scores. Over the years, different methods for Normal Level calculation have been proposed by PAS researchers. To give one of the simplest, we take the average of the highest two scores, the average of the next 5 scores and the average of those two averages. This, like all methods, ignores the lowest scores.
  2. Compare each subtest score to the Normal Level. This shows the PAS factors according to whether a score is higher or lower than Normal Level. Strong factors (e.g. "E+") show large deviations from Normal Level. Moderate factors (e.g. "E") show a moderate deviation from Normal Level. Weak or borderline factors (e.g. "E-") are near Normal Level. Each subtest gives exactly one factor. Thus ten subtests give:

    PAS researchers have developed charts to lookup deviations of each score from Normal Level. These charts recognize subtleties such as the effect which a strong compensation will have on the results of a test which is used to determine a primitive factor.

In conclusion, if a person has WAIS scores available, a PAS trained individual can interpret them into a PAS profile. The mechanics of this interpretation are easy. The research behind the charts has not been easy. The challenging part is then explaining the profile as it applies to that individual.

8.1.2 Examples

We will give three examples of subtests to show how the theory works. Our examples are chosen to be subtests where some prior knowledge is unlikely to corrupt the administration of the test should a reader find himself taking the WAIS one day. Again, remember that PAS was developed by observing people. Our first two examples are the tests for the Primitive and Basic (Compensation) levels in the intellectual dimension. The test for Primitive E/I (Intellectual Dimension) records many digits a person can repeat back. The test administrator reads digits slowly, and the subject attempts to repeat them back. The administrator gives ever longer strings of digits until the subject misses two attempts with strings of that length. After using digits forwards, the administrator uses digits backwards.

The person who has "high" digits is a primitive "I". Remember, that the definition of having "high" digits is a high score relative to Normal Level. A person with an 8 on digits with a Normal Level of 7 is an "I". A person with a 9 on digits with a Normal Level of 15 is an "E+". The theory says that an "I" does well on digits because he can internalize the abstract digits and repeat them back. The "I" can concentrate on the abstract digits (with no pattern or context) without being distracted by the test administrator, the ticking clock, the sunbeams coming in the window or the birds chirping. The "E", who has "low" digits, finds the abstract digits lack reality, and he fails to memorize them. Furthermore, the "E" is more concerned about whether the test administrator is smiling, how he is writing the answers, the sunbeam coming in the window, the ticking clock, whether the administrator will think he is dumb, etc. Often, when trying to repeat digits, the "E" will bury his head in his hands or screw up his face to work "real hard" at concentrating, all to no avail. Often an "I" can just stare at the wall (or at the test administrator!) and just rattle off the digits.

At the time Dr. Gittinger started to develop PAS, researchers using the WAIS were puzzled at the spread of scores. They theorized that "low" digits was caused by stress. However, Dr. Gittinger was working with a population all of whom were under stress and they showed a spread of digit scores. He noticed that those with "high" digits had been successful as fry cooks, men working the counter in a small hamburger stand. This job requires concentration amidst distraction. Those with "low" digits failed as fry cooks and became dishwashers. This was the first seed of what grew into PAS.

The test for compensation in the intellectual dimension is a simple test of mental arithmetic. The test administrator reads simple arithmetic problems to the subject. The person taking the test is not allowed to use pencil and paper.

The person who is uncompensated (either "Eu" or "Iu") scores "low" on arithmetic. The compensated adjustments ("Ec" or "Ic") score "high" on arithmetic. The theory is that the uncompensated adjustments do poorly, but for different reasons. It is important to note that this test is not closely related to math ability. It is a test of mental arithmetic, without pencil and paper and under test conditions with a stop watch running and a person waiting for the answer! The "Eu" does not do well on arithmetic because he is so distracted by concerns over whether the test administrator will think he is smart (or dumb), the ever ticking stop watch and the desire to pick up a pencil. The "Iu", on the other hand, does not do well on arithmetic because he is so internally involved that he has trouble hearing the questions. The "Iu" also wants pencil and paper, but he wants them for a different reason than the "Eu". The "Eu" wants pencil and paper in order to deal with arithmetic as a "see, feel, touch" item, not an abstract one. The "Iu" wants pencil and paper to get himself in contact. One way of expressing this is that for the "Eu", the arithmetic problems go "in one ear and out the other" and to the "Iu" the problems "never go in the ear".

Our final example is the test for the primitive factor in the social dimension. This test shows Role Adaptive versus Role Uniform. The test consists of a task of putting a set of cartoon pictures in order so that they tell a story. The "A" sees all of the social cues and quickly (the quickly is important) puts the story in (socially) correct order. Thus the "A" scores "high" on this test. This is a different skill from the "F" ability to understand a situation. A strong "A" can often put the stories together quickly and if asked, he will not be able to explain the story. He just saw the cues, reacted to the social situation, and did it right. A "U" attacks the task as something to accomplish, often figuring out many things about the cartoon pictures and the story. But he does not put the pictures together correctly and quickly.

This subtest has been perplexing to psychologists who work with the WAIS. In general, most high achievers are primitive "U" individuals. It is somewhat distressing for a psychologist trying to understand IQ (and who does not know PAS) to figure out why high achievers nearly all score low on one particular subtest of an IQ test. Furthermore, convicted criminals, on average, score very well on this test! This is because of the difficulty the primitive "A" has in living up to expectations and developing a habit of getting what he wants by social charm (then con) rather than achievement.

In the view of some PAS researchers, the WAIS and especially the WAIS-R have corrupted the scoring of this particular test so that high Normal Level (or high IQ) "U" individuals will score higher on it. The WAIS and especially the WAIS-R have removed the bonus points in the scoring for putting the stories together quickly. Many primitive "U" individuals can put the stories together correctly if given enough time. This is exactly what happens to a "U" in a social situation. Given time he can figure out what to say or what role to play. But he does not do so in new situations.

8.1.3 Scatter

This final section on testing is the most technical we will be in our discussions. With the WAIS, there are 10 subtests. Most people do not score the same on each subtest. This is called scatter. Psychologists have debated the meaning of scatter over the decades. With WAIS, PAS users say that the scatter happens to show us some very valuable information - the PAS profile. Non-PAS psychologists who use the WAIS will often note the scatter in their report on an individual and attempt to draw some meaning out of the scatter. This can make almost comical reading because we can see that if they just knew PAS, they would make things so much easier for themselves.

With scatter, psychologists attempt to determine how many "independent" factors exist. For example, in the WAIS, there are ten subtests. However, it might be that all people who score high on subtest #1 also score high on subtest #6 and so forth. Thus, there may be less than ten independent factors. It is common in testing to study how well one test (or subtest) correlates to other tests or subtests. With the WAIS, some mathematical psychologists have maintained that there are not 10 independent factors in the WAIS and therefore, PAS cannot be validly measured with the WAIS.

There are technical reasons for PAS researchers to be convinced of the validity of the WAIS for producing ten factors for PAS. These reasons are beyond the scope of the book.

Apart from technical discussions, one important consideration convinces us of the validity of using the WAIS in spite of the opinion of some about independent factors in the scatter. An experienced PAS user can look at a set of scores knowing nothing else about a person and give an accurate description of personality. Since we are dealing with a people oriented system, the "people" aspects of the system must be considered very important.

The first reference in the Bibliography contains extensive technical information on scatter.

8.1.4 Other Tests

Some researchers have attempted to find another test which can reliably produce PAS profiles. The WAIS is individually administered which means that it is expensive and time consuming to obtain PAS profiles for a large population of people. One difficulty in using written forms of tests is that written tests tend to use questions which are called "self-reporting." A person is asked to report on himself. For example, a "self-reporting" test may ask questions about whether a person prefers one activity to another. In PAS terms, self-reporting tests tend to reveal only the surface level of development - what the person is trying to be on the surface.

Nonetheless, some are hopeful that an effective written or self administered test can be found which will provide PAS profiles with reasonable accuracy.

Some PAS users and researchers have attempted to devise sets of test questions based upon various traits. For example, if we know that in general "I" individuals have a higher tolerance for long commutes to work than "E" individuals, we may ask a question about commuting. Or, knowing that "A" individuals get jokes better, we might try noting responses to certain jokes. Thus far, attempts to create such questions have not succeeded in providing another way to reliably gain PAS profiles. The difficulty is that other tests, questions, and techniques produce results which are dependent upon a variety of different PAS factors.

As one example, the author performed a research project in which subjects were asked to memorize a set of "nonsense" syllables. These are 3 letter syllables which are not words such as "fid" or "jir". The purpose of the experiment was to allow each subject to practice a list of 10 such syllables and then come back to each subject at intervals to determine how quickly they forgot the list. The goal was to correlate the forgetting rate with PAS profiles. The assumption was that "I"s would learn the syllables faster than "E"s. This assumption turned out to be wrong! Apparently, nonsense syllables are quite different from numeric digits. Perhaps, nonsense syllables have more meaning that abstract numbers. The results showed that the learning rate of the nonsense syllables was dependent upon both the intellectual dimension (E/I) and the procedural dimension (R/F). The IR combination learned them most easily and the EF combination took the longest to learn the list of syllables. Within the limited scope of the experiment, forgetting rates were so varied that no patterns were discernible.

In the final analysis, it seems that David Wechsler did a very good job in creating tests which truly test specific, independent aspects of human intelligence and performance.

8.2 Appendix 2 - Obtaining PAS Profiles

Appendix 1 noted that PAS profiles can be obtained from results from the WAIS. In fact, analysis of WAIS scores and their scatter was instrumental in the development of the PAS.

We have noted that while the PAS has an active community of users in counseling practice and in research, it is not widely known and used. Readers may wish to pursue PAS by obtaining PAS profiles for themselves and their families.

The authors are able to provide PAS profiles to readers who are willing to participate in a research project which consists in analyzing profiles of home educated students and parents versus national norms and other statistical collections of PAS profiles. The authors will return PAS profile information to readers who are willing to provide test scores for research purposes. To participate, please follow the following procedure:

  1. Obtain test scores. Most school psychologists and many private counselors can administer the WAIS (for adults age 16 and up) or the WISC (up to age 16). (15) There has been only limited work using the PAS with the WISC, the children's version of the WAIS; however, it seems to provide accurate profiles. The younger the child (the WISC is designed to use with children as young as 6 years old), the less experience there is in making valid PAS interpretations of test results. (0) Children with good academic skills can often successfully take the WAIS from age 13 and up, even though the WAIS is not standardized for this age group. The lack of standardization for children in this age group does not prohibit the use of the scores in PAS profiling.

    For use with the PAS, it is important to use the WAIS, not the WAIS-R. For children, it is important to use the WISC-R, not the WISC-III.

    If a child has had "problems" in an institutional school setting, he may have been given the WISC or WISC-R (see appendix 2 for more details on the name of the test). In this case, the parents should be able to obtain the subtest scores required for PAS interpretation.

  2. For PAS profiles, the weighted scores of the following subtests are required:
    Info, Comp, DigSpan, Arith, Sim, PA, PC, BD, ObjAssem, DigSym.
    Vocabulary is not required for the WAIS or WISC. The WISC has other optional subtests which are not required for the PAS. Note that for PAS, the DigSpan subtest is required, even though it is an optional subtest in the standard WISC.
  3. If available, a copy of the actual score sheet is preferred because PAS scoring refinements can be applied to some subtests.
  4. Send the weighted scores (and if available a copy of the score sheet) to the author.
  5. Include a self-addressed stamped envelope for return of profile information.
  6. The author requests a brief biographical sketch with the scores containing information such as:

    Extensive biographical information is not necessary to participate in the research project; however, such information enhances the research being undertaken.

  7. The author will use the information provided only to:

If readers have questions about this research project, they can write or call the author for more information before deciding to participate.

There is no charge for this service.

We remind the reader that while we believe that PAS profiles provide very useful information about individual differences, we strongly advise that PAS profiles never be used to limit an individual when God is opening an area of success or service. Many of the educational applications are still in the research stage.

8.3 Appendix 3 - Bibliography

The best single reference on PAS is a book, The Personality Assessment System, by C. J. Krauskopf and D. R. Saunders, to be published in the summer of 1993. This book is a description of the PAS, contains information of testing and scoring, discusses an overview of research projects using the PAS, and discusses PAS in light of other research work. The book will be published by University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland.

Other references are listed below. Some significant references are not included because they are not readily available in libraries because they were never formally published. Also, reference material with highly clinical language is not included here because of the danger of confusion for a reader without knowledge of how to interpret clinical terms.

An excellent source of information is the Personality Assessment System Foundation Journal. This journal is published annually by the Personality Assessment System Foundation (some years have been skipped). It will be available in some university libraries.

Many books and articles are available in the archives of the Gittinger Institute which has been established at Hocking Technical College in Nelsonville, Ohio.

Finally, many articles have been published over the years on the PAS. Many have been academic studies comparing PAS factors to other testing systems. These are technical in nature and of interest only to those with knowledge of many psychological tests.

The list below is a sampling of other articles on applications of the PAS.

   Winne, J. F. & Gittinger, J. W. (1973), An introduction to the Personality Assessment System. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Monograph Supplement, No. 38. (Now Archives of the Behavioral Sciences).
   Saunders, D. R., Kaplan, S. J., & Rodd, W. G. (1980). Implications of PAS for marital counseling: A pilot study. Psychological Reports, 46, 151-160.
   Saunders, D. R. (1981). Sex differences in Wechsler subtest profiles as seen through the PAS. Psychological Reports, 683-688.

Personality, Education

and the Bible

by Earl Rodd

The objective of this book is to provide parents with insight on how to adapt their educational methods to each of their children (and themselves). To do this, we will look at some aspects of personality using a particular method of describing personality, and then we will apply personality traits to the home educational situation. The most important part of this book is the chapter on "Diversity and Absolutes" which provides a basis for dealing with obvious individual differences in personality in light of Biblical absolutes. Sin is never justified by personality! We know that God has made each person for His purposes - our objective in this book is to help parents see the unique ways in which God has made each child. Biblical absolutes of sin and righteousness apply to all equally - educational methods should be adapted to the way God has made each one. We pray that in addition to helping parents adapt their educational methods, this book will help each reader come to a better understanding of how to appreciate and rejoice in the way God has made us all different, and yet has called us to form one Body of Christ serving one Lord!


  1. See "8.2 Appendix 2 - Obtaining PAS Profiles" for help with this problem.
  2. The test was the IQ test developed by Dr. David Wechsler. Today this test is called the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). The WAIS consists of a number of subtests which were carefully designed by Wechsler to test different aspects of human capability. Some people score high on some subtests and others high on others. See Appendix 1 for more information.
  3. Of course, there may be more factors to personality than included in the PAS. PAS seems to be an accurate model of personality, but that does not mean that it is complete. We are fearfully and wonderfully made by our Creator!
  4. Those readers who have taken the test and know their PAS profiles based upon those test scores may find it helpful to read appendix A before continuing in this chapter or after they have read the first sections of this chapter on primitives.
  5. PAS researchers have been studying a possible fourth dimension, but this work has not yet yielded the tidy, usable structure of the first three.
  6. These percentages come from a standardization sample used for the test (see appendix A). The intent was to select a sample which represented a cross section of Americans include equal numbers of males and females and all races. As is always true of psychological test standardization (e.g. Stanford or Iowa Achievement tests), it cannot be known how successful this selection is in PAS terms without collecting controlled data on a far larger sample, a project too expensive to be practical. However statistical techniques are very refined and believed to be correct.
  7. "R" individuals also often fail to get jokes. This demonstrates one way in which the dimensions interact with each other. Actually, some jokes are good "A"/"U" tests because of their social content and other jokes are more "R"/"F" tests .
  8. Yes, counseling sometimes brings great changes. These changes are generally attributed to moral choices and the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit. As we look at personality development, we will see more clearly why we make the statement that personality does not generally change in counseling
  9. We should also add that in this particular American operation, another distinctive was to treat the prisoners and defectors well. They saw the Americans as quite distinct from the corrupt South Vietnamese government who they had been fighting all those years. Many Viet Cong were unhappy about the heavy North Vietnamese penetration of what started as a South Vietnamese movement and so were ready to respond well to kind treatment by the Americans. Furthermore, they often were receptive to helping the Americans in order to stay out of the hands of the South Vietnamese military.
  10. Again, these numbers come from analysis of the standardization sample used for a test (see Appendix A). The standardization sample was chosen with the objective of including an accurate cross section of American population. The sample includes a variety of racial groups and social backgrounds.
  11. See the book "Educating for the New World Order" by Beverly Eakman, published by Halcyon House, PO Box 8795, Portland OR 97207.
  12. Note that many types of puzzle activities are not pure "A-U" or "R-F" tests, but combinations of them. Still, the cautions apply in that some children will do better than others on such activities and their performance has nothing to do with their mastery of the subject matter.
  13. The Biblical Method of Education consists of learning to listen (hearing), seeing by example, discussing (asking questions), and writing. See the pamphlet "The Biblical Method of Education" by Earl and Diane Rodd for a full development.
  14. When using the WAIS, and especially the WAIS-R, some modification of scoring is often done when the actual test form is available rather than just the scaled scores. This is especially true of the test for A-U. The reason for this is discussed later - see "" refid=testex.
  15. It is not necessary to mention the PAS application when asking for the WISC or WAIS to be administered or for scores from a prior administration. Many psychologists have not heard of PAS. If the relationship is friendly, readers are encouraged to share the PAS with the psychologist or counselor. However, beware that as in all professions, some professionals do not react well to systems, concepts, and ideas outside of their experience.
  16. Often with very young children, primitive PAS traits are quiteobvious. This is especially true with strong traits (e.g. I+). In young children we see the pure primitive traits before the complicating effects of compensation begin to take place. The chapter, "PAS Structure", often makes reference to specific traits among young children. With children 10 years old and up, PAS profiles from WISC tests are usually very helpful in the education process. With younger children, an understanding of the diversity existing among children, such as is obtained by understanding the various educational applications in an earlier chapter, is very helpful even without test results. Parents with God's wisdom will discern the diversity among their children. Our purpose in this book is to help parents be comfortable with the diversity God has made and avoid the fundamental errors discussed in the chapter "Diversity and Absolutes."

File: /fhc/pasmasth.pbk
Copyright Earl & Diane Rodd